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Plos One : Flight and Walking in Locusts–cholinergic Co-activation...

By: Vladimir Brezina

Description : Walking and flying in locusts are exemplary rhythmical behaviors generated by central pattern generators (CPG) that are tuned in intact animals by phasic sensory inputs. Although these two behaviors are mutually exclusive and controlled by independent CPGs, leg movements during flight can be coupled to the flight rhythm. To investigate potential central coupling between the underlying CPGs, we used the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine and the amines octopamin...

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Plos One : Differential Responses of Brain, Gonad and Muscle Stero...

By: Alessandro Bartolomucci

Description : Sex steroids can both modulate and be modulated by behavior, and their actions are mediated by complex interactions among multiple hormone sources and targets. While gonadal steroids delivered via circulation can affect behavior, changes in local brain steroid synthesis also can modulate behavior. The relative steroid load across different tissues and the association of these levels with rates of behavior have not been well studied. The bluebanded goby (Lyt...

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Plos One : Gender Differences in Electrophysiological Gene Express...

By: Alena Talkachova

Description : The increasing availability of human cardiac tissues for study are critically important in increasing our understanding of the impact of gender, age, and other parameters, such as medications and cardiac disease, on arrhythmia susceptibility. In this study, we aimed to compare the mRNA expression of 89 ion channel subunits, calcium handling proteins, and transcription factors important in cardiac conduction and arrhythmogenesis in the left atria (LA) and ve...

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Plos One : the Crucial Role of Divalent Metal Ions in the Dnaactin...

By: Asad U. Khan

Description : Chromomycin A3 (Chro) is capable of forming a stable dimeric complex via chelation with Ni(II), Fe(II) and Co(II). According to the circular dichroism study, the dimer conformations are significantly different among the Fe(II)-, Co(II)-, and Ni(II)- containing dimeric Chro complexes: however, the dimer conformations were preserved at high temperatures. Furthermore, we conducted a systematic study to determine the effects of these divalent metal ions on the ...

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Plos One : Cross-reactive Anti-viral T Cells Increase Prior to an ...

By: Hidde L. Ploegh

Description : Human Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation continues to influence lung transplant outcomes. Cross-reactivity of anti-viral memory T cells against donor human leukocyte antigens (HLA) may be a contributing factor. We identified cross-reactive HLA-A*02:01-restricted CMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) co-recognizing the NLVPMVATV (NLV) epitope and HLAB27. NLV-specific CD8+ T cells were expanded for 13 days from 14 HLA-A*02:01/CMV seropositive healthy don...

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Plos One : Characterization and Functional Analysis of the Potato ...

By: Friedrich Frischknecht

Description : Microtubule-associated proteins play a crucial role in the regulation of microtubule dynamics, and are very important for plant cell and organ development. SBgLR is a potato pollen-specific protein, with five imperfect V-V-E-K-K-N/E-E repetitive motifs that are responsible for microtubule binding activity. In present study, SBgLR showed typical microtubule-associated protein characteristics: it bound tubulin and microtubules, and colocalized with microtubul...

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Plos One : Euphorbia Tirucalli L.–comprehensive Characterization o...

By: Haibing Yang

Description : Of late, decrease in mineral oil supplies has stimulated research on use of biomass as an alternative energy source. Climate change has brought problems such as increased drought and erratic rains. This, together with a rise in land degeneration problems with concomitant loss in soil fertility has inspired the scientific world to look for alternative bio-energy species. Euphorbia tirucalli L., a tree with C3/CAM metabolism in leaves/stem, can be cultivated ...

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Plos One : Novel Loci Associated with Increased Risk of Sudden Car...

By: Florian Kronenberg

Description : Our findings suggest that RAB3GAP1 and ZNF365 are relevant candidate genes for SCD and will contribute to the mechanistic understanding of SCD susceptibility.

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Plos One : Expression of Novel Alzheimer’s Disease Risk Genes in C...

By: Stephen D Ginsberg

Description : Late onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) etiology is influenced by complex interactions between genetic and environmental risk factors. Large-scale genome wide association studies (GWAS) for LOAD have identified 10 novel risk genes : ABCA7, BIN1, CD2AP, CD33, CLU, CR1, EPHA1, MS4A6A, MS4A6E, and PICALM. We sought to measure the influence of GWAS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gene expression levels on clinical and pathological measures of AD in bra...

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Plos One : Identification of Chemokines Associated with the Recrui...

By: Ana Claudia Zenclussen

Description : Current therapies for preterm labour (PTL) focus on arresting myometrial contractions but are largely ineffective, thus alternative therapeutic targets need to be identified. Leukocytes infiltrate the uterus around the time of labour, and are in particularly abundant in decidua (maternal-fetal interface). Moreover, decidual inflammation precedes labour in rat pregnancies and thus may contribute to initiation of labour. We hypothesized that chemokines mediat...

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Plos One : Crop Damage by Primates ; Quantifying the Key Parameter...

By: Diane K. Brockman

Description : Human-wildlife conflict often arises from crop-raiding, and insights regarding which aspects of raiding events determine crop loss are essential when developing and evaluating deterrents. However, because accounts of crop-raiding behaviour are frequently indirect, these parameters are rarely quantified or explicitly linked to crop damage. Using systematic observations of the behaviour of non-human primates on farms in western Uganda, this research identifie...

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Plos One : Inhibition of Ttr Aggregation-induced Cell Death—a New ...

By: Gianluigi Forloni

Description : Together, these two approaches firmly establish the protective effect of SAP on TTR-induced cell death and degenerative phenotypes, and suggest a novel role for SAP through which the toxicity of early amyloidogenic aggregates is attenuated.

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Plos One : Quantum Entanglement and Spin Control in Silicon Nanocr...

By: Gerardo Adesso

Description : Selective coherence control and electrically mediated exchange coupling of single electron spin between triplet and singlet states using numerically derived optimal control of proton pulses is demonstrated. We obtained spatial confinement below size of the Bohr radius for proton spin chain FWHM. Precise manipulation of individual spins and polarization of electron spin states are analyzed via proton induced emission and controlled population of energy shell...

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Plos One : Role of Injured Pancreatic Extract Promotes Bone Marrow...

By: Shree Ram Singh

Description : Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be successfully induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells IPCs) by a variety of small molecules and cytokines in vitro. However, problems remain, such as low transdifferentiation efficiency and poor maturity of trans-differentiated cells. The damaged pancreatic cells secreted a large amount of soluble proteins, which were able to promote pancreative islet regeneration and MSCs differentiation. In this study, we ...

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Plos One : Universal Natural Shapes ; from Unifying Shape Descript...

By: Timothy Ravasi

Description : Gielis curves and surfaces can describe a wide range of natural shapes and they have been used in various studies in biology and physics as descriptive tool. This has stimulated the generalization of widely used computational methods. Here we show that proper normalization of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm allows for efficient and robust reconstruction of Gielis curves, including self-intersecting and asymmetric curves, without increasing the overall com...

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Plos One : Trends in the Distribution of Gestational Age and Contr...

By: Claire Thorne

Description : Findings suggest a changing pattern towards births at earlier gestations, fewer births commencing spontaneously and increasing planned births. Factors associated with changing clinical practice and long-term implications on the health and well-being of mothers and babies should be assessed.

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Plos One : Placebo Effects on the Immune Response in Humans ; the ...

By: Manabu Sakakibara

Description : Placebo responses are primarily mediated via two neuropsychological mechanisms : patients’ expectation towards the benefit of a treatment and associative learning processes. Immune functions, like other physiological responses, can be modulated through behavioral conditioning. However, it is unknown whether learned immune responses are affected by the number of re-expositions to the conditioned stimulus (CS) during evocation. Moreover, it is unclear whether...

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Plos One : Care-seeking and Management of Common Childhood Illness...

By: Mohamed Abdisalan Noor

Description : PHC facilities and pharmacies most commonly provided sub-optimal care. These facilities were more commonly utilized as the first option for child care in rural areas and among the poor and non-educated families. These are groups with the highest child mortality, which calls for interventions’ targeting improvement of care at these facilities to further reduce child mortality from treatable illnesses in Tanzania.

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Plos One : Htra3 as an Early Marker for Preeclampsia ; Specific Mo...

By: Haibin Wang

Description : Mammalian HtrA3 (high temperature requirement A3) is a serine protease of the HtrA family. It has two isoforms [long (HtrA3-L) and short (HtrA3-S)] and is important for placental development and cancer progression. Recently, HtrA3 was identified as a potential diagnostic marker for early detection of preeclampsia, a life-threatening pregnancy-specific disorder. Currently there are no high-throughput assays available to detect HtrA3 in human serum. In this s...

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Plos One : X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging of Cell Isolation with Sup...

By: Gayle E. Woloschak

Description : Super-paramagnetic microbeads are widely used for cell isolation. Evaluation of the binding affinity of microbeads to cells using optical microscopy has been limited by its small scope. Here, magnetic property of microbeads was first investigated by using synchrotron radiation (SR) in-line x-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI). The cell line mouse LLC (Lewis lung carcinoma) was selected for cell adhesion studies. Targeted microbeads were prepared by attaching ...

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