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Plos One : Brevilin A, a Novel Natural Product, Inhibits Janus Kin...

By: Mark Jackson

Description : Signal abnormalities in human cells usually cause unexpected consequences for individual health. We focus on these kinds of events involved in JAK-STAT signal pathways, especially the ones triggered by aberrant activated STAT3, an oncoprotein which participates in essential processes of cell survival, growth and proliferation in many types of tumors, as well as immune diseases. By establishing a STAT3 signal based high-throughput drug screening system in hu...

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Plos One : Sites of Glucose Transporter-4 Vesicle Fusion with the ...

By: Julie G. Donaldson

Description : In adipocytes, vesicles containing glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) redistribute from intracellular stores to the cell periphery in response to insulin stimulation. Vesicles then fuse with the plasma membrane, facilitating glucose transport into the cell. To gain insight into the details of microtubule involvement, we examined the spatial organization and dynamics of microtubules in relation to GLUT4 vesicle trafficking in living 3T3-L1 adipocytes using total ...

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Plos One : Pre-immunization with an Intramuscular Injection of Aav...

By: John a Chiorini

Description : We have recently demonstrated that adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9)-mediated human erythropoietin (hEPO) gene delivery into the brain protects dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease. In the present study, we examined whether pre-exposure to AAV9-hEPO vectors with an intramuscular or intrastriatal injection would reduce AAV9-mediated hEPO transduction in rat brain. We first characterized transgene expr...

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Plos One : Insights Into the Evolution of the Csp Gene Family Thro...

By: Natarajan Kannan

Description : Insect chemical communication and chemosensory systems rely on proteins coded by several gene families. Here, we have combined protein modeling with evolutionary analysis in order to study the evolution and structure of chemosensory proteins (CSPs) within arthropods and, more specifically, in ants by using the data available from sequenced genomes. Ants and other social insects are especially interesting model systems for the study of chemosensation, as the...

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Plos One : the Effect of Aquatic Plant Abundance on Shell Crushing...

By: Sean Walker

Description : Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the a...

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Plos One : Human Papillomavirus Up-regulates Mmp-2 and Mmp-9 Expre...

By: Suminori Akiba

Description : Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with non-smoking female lung cancer. Our previous report demonstrated that HPV 16 promotes lung tumor cell progression by up-regulating interleukin-17 (IL-17). IL-17 and its downstream signaling mediator, interleukin-8 (IL-8), have been implicated to modulate a variety of pro-angiogenic factors and play important roles in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Accordingly, we hypothesized that HPV infection may...

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Plos One : Troponin and Anti-troponin Autoantibody Levels in Patie...

By: Toru Hosoda

Description : Ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction is a morphologic and functional anomaly of myocardium characterized by prominent trabeculae accompanied by deep recessus. Dilated cardiomyopathy with left ventricular failure is observed in these patients, while the cause or pathophysiologic nature of this complication is not known. Anti-troponin antibodies are formed against circulating cardiac troponins after an acute coronary event or conditions associated wit...

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Plos One : Wnt Activation by Wild Type and Mutant Myocilin in Cult...

By: Rafael Linden

Description : The present study demonstrated that following forced expression of wild type myocilin, Wnt was activated, triggering in turn other myocilin-related alterations. P370L and Q368X mutations induced similar phenotypes, suggesting one possible mechanism how the mutants may lead to TM cell damage and pathology.

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Plos One : Magnetoencephalographic Study on Forward Suppression by...

By: Hemachandra Reddy

Description : When two tones are presented in a short time interval, the response to the second tone is suppressed. This phenomenon is referred to as forward suppression. To address the effect of the masker laterality on forward suppression, magnetoencephalographic responses were investigated for eight subjects with normal hearing when the preceding maskers were presented ipsilaterally, contralaterally, and binaurally. We employed three masker intensity conditions : the ...

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Plos One : Crosstalk of Escherichia Coli Fadr with Global Regulato...

By: Valerie De Crecy-lagard

Description : Escherichia coli FadR plays two regulatory roles in fatty acid metabolism. FadR represses the fatty acid degradation (fad) system and activates the unsaturated fatty acid synthetic pathway. Cross-talk between E. coli FadR and the ArcA-ArcB oxygen-responsive two-component system was observed that resulted in diverse regulation of certain fad regulon boxidation genes. We have extended such analyses to the fadL and fadD genes, the protein products of which are...

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Plos One : Trp, Trpl and Cacophony Channels Mediate CA2+ Influx an...

By: Alexander G. Obukhov

Description : In Drosophila photoreceptors Ca2+-permeable channels TRP and TRPL are the targets of phototransduction, occurring in photosensitive microvilli and mediated by a phospholipase C (PLC) pathway. Using a novel Drosophila brain slice preparation, we studied the distribution and physiological properties of TRP and TRPL in the lamina of the visual system. Immunohistochemical images revealed considerable expression in photoreceptors axons at the lamina. Other photo...

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Plos One : Primary Breast Cancer Tumours Contain High Amounts of I...

By: Yves St-pierre

Description : The Tn antigen (GalNAc alpha-O-Ser/Thr) as defined by the binding of the lectin, helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) or anti-Tn monoclonal antibodies, is known to be exposed in a majority of cancers, and it has also been shown to correlate positively with the metastatic capacity in breast carcinoma. The short O-glycan that forms the antigen is carried by a number of different proteins. One potential carrier of the Tn antigen is immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1), which we...

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Plos One : Circadian Regulation of Food-anticipatory Activity in M...

By: William Schwartz

Description : In the mammalian brain, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus is considered to be the principal circadian pacemaker, keeping the rhythm of most physiological and behavioral processes on the basis of light/dark cycles. Because restriction of food availability to a certain time of day elicits anticipatory behavior even after ablation of the SCN, such behavior has been assumed to be under the control of another circadian oscillator. Ac...

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Plos One : Homing of Regulatory T Cells to Human Skin is Important...

By: George Kassiotis

Description : Regulatory T cell (Treg) therapy for immune modulation is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment and prevention of autoimmune disease and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after bone marrow transplantation. However, Treg are heterogeneous and express a variety of chemokine receptor molecules. The optimal subpopulation of Treg for therapeutic use may vary according to the pathological target. Indeed, clinical trials of Treg for the prevention of G...

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Plos One : Identification of Genes from the Fungal Pathogen Crypto...

By: Kirsten Nielsen

Description : This research design provides a new strategy for genetic impact studies on how Cryptococcus passes through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and the specific isolated mutants in this assay support a transcellular mechanism of CNS entry.

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Plos One : Memory in Elementary School Children is Improved by an ...

By: Thomas Burne

Description : Education is the most traditional means with formative effect on the human mind, learning and memory being its fundamental support. For this reason, it is essential to find different strategies to improve the students performance. Based on previous work, we hypothesized that a novel experience could exert an enhancing effect on learning and memory within the school environment. Here we show that novel experience improved the memory of literary or graphical ...

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Plos One : the Influence of the Val158Met Catechol-omethyltransfer...

By: James D. Clelland

Description : Suffering from bipolar disorder could have an impact on personality. A greater value in harm avoidance may be a genetic marker for a vulnerability to the development of a psychiatric disorder, but not bipolar disorder particularly, while a low value in persistence may characterize affective disorders or a subgroup of bipolar patients. The association between novelty seeking scores and COMT genotype may be linked with the role dopamine plays in the brain’s reward circuits.

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Plos One : Arabidopsis Bhlh100 and Bhlh101 Control Iron Homeostasi...

By: Malcolm Bennett

Description : Iron deficiency induces a complex set of responses in plants, including developmental and physiological changes, to increase iron uptake from soil. In Arabidopsis, many transporters involved in the absorption and distribution of iron have been identified over the past decade. However, little is known about the signaling pathways and networks driving the various responses to low iron. Only the basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factor FIT has been s...

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Plos One : Effective Visual Working Memory Capacity ; an Emergent ...

By: Stefan Kiebel

Description : The study of working memory capacity is of outmost importance in cognitive psychology as working memory is at the basis of general cognitive function. Although the working memory capacity limit has been thoroughly studied, its origin still remains a matter of strong debate. Only recently has the role of visual saliency in modulating working memory storage capacity been assessed experimentally and proved to provide valuable insights into working memory funct...

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Plos One : Ck2 Inhibitor Cx-4945 Blocks Tgf-β1-induced Epithelialt...

By: Masaru Katoh

Description : Clinical evaluation of CX-4945 in humans as a single agent in solid tumors and multiple myeloma has established its promising pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and safety profiles. Beyond regression of tumor mass, CX-4945 may be advanced as a new therapy for cancer metastasis and EMT-related disorders.

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