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Quantifying the Impact of Land-use Changes at the Event and Season...

By: S. Uhlenbrook; B. Ott

Description: Bayerisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft, Wasserwirtschaftsamt Bamberg, Kasernstraße 4, 96047 Bamberg, Germany. For optimal protection and integrated management of water resources, it is essential to quantify the impact of land-use change on hydrological regimes at various scales. Using the process-based catchment model TACD (tracer aided catchment model, distributed) two land-use scenarios were analysed for the rural and mount...

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A Comparison of Eddy-covariance and Large Aperture Scintillometer ...

By: Z. Z. Jia; S. M. Liu; J. Bai; M. J. Zhu; J. M. Wang; W. Z. Wang; Z. W. Xu

Description: State key laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, China. We analyzed the seasonal variations of energy balance components over three different surfaces: irrigated cropland (Yingke, YK), alpine meadow (A'rou, AR), and spruce forest (Guantan, GT). The energy balance components were measured using eddy covariance (EC) systems and a large aperture scintillometer (LAS) in the Heihe River Basin, Ch...

Andreas, E. L.: Estimating $C_{n}^{2}$ over snow and sea ice from meteorological data, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 5, 481–495, 1988.; Aubinet, M., Grelle, A., Ibrom, A., Rannik, U., Moncrieff, J., Foken, T., Kowalski, A. S., Martin, P. H., Berbigier, P., Bernhofer, Ch., Clement, R., Elbers, J., Granier, A., Grünwald, T., Morgenstern, K., Pilegaard, K., Rebmann, C., Snijders, W., Valentini, R., and Vesala, T.: Estimates of the annual net carbon and water exchange of European forest...

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Integrated Response and Transit Time Distributions of Watersheds b...

By: M. Weiler; M. C. Roa-garcía

Description: Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, 2357 Main Mall, Vancouver, B.C., V6T 1Z4 Canada. We present a new modeling approach analyzing and predicting the Transit Time Distribution (TTD) and the Response Time Distribution (RTD) from hourly to annual time scales as two distinct hydrological processes. The model integrates Isotope Hydrograph Separation (IHS) and the Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (IUH) approach as a tool to provide a more reali...

Abbaspour, K. C., Schulin, R., and van Genuchten, M. T.: Estimating unsaturated soil hydraulic parameters using ant colony optimization, Ad. Water Resour., 24, 827–841, 2001.; Bariac, T., Millet, A., Ladouche, B., Mathieu, R., Grimaldi, C., Grimaldi, M., Hubert, P., Molicova, H., Bruckler, L., Bertuzzi, P., Boulegue, J., Brunet, Y., Tournebize, R., and Granier, A.: Stream hydrograph separation on two Guianese catchments, Tracer Technologies for Hydrological Systems (Proc...

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Curvature Distribution Within Hillslopes and Catchments and Its Ef...

By: P. A. Troch; P. W. Bogaart

Description: Hydrology and Quantitative Water Management Group, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. Topographic convergence and divergence are first order controls on the hillslope and catchment hydrological response, as evidenced by similarity parameter analyses. Hydrological models often do not take convergence as measured by contour curvature directly into account; instead they use comparable measures like the topographic index or the hillslope width function...

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Modeling Geophysical Complexity: a Case for Geometric Determinism ...

By: B. Sivakumar; C. E. Puente

Description: Department of Land, Air & Water Resources, University of California, Davis, USA. It has been customary in the last few decades to employ stochastic models to represent complex data sets encountered in geophysics, particularly in hydrology. This article reviews a deterministic geometric procedure to data modeling, one that represents whole data sets as derived distributions of simple multifractal measures via fractal functions. It is shown how such a pro...

Barnsley, M. F.: Fractals Everywhere, Academic Press, San Diego, USA, 1988.; Maragos, P.: Pattern spectrum and multiscale shape representation, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell., 11(7), 701–716, 1989.; Lovejoy, S. and Schertzer, D.: Multifractals, universality classes and satellite and radar measurements of cloud and rain fields, J. Geophys. Res. 95, 2021–2034, 1990.; Meneveau, C. and Sreenivasan, K. R.: Simple multifractal cascade model for fully developed turbu...

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A Coupled Modeling Framework of the Co-evolution of Humans and Wat...

By: M. Sivapalan; F. Tian; M. Lin; D. Liu

Description: State Key Laboratory of Eco-Hydraulic Engineering in Shaanxi, School of Water Resources and Hydropower, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an, 710048, China. The complex interactions and feedbacks between humans and water are very essential issues but are poorly understood in the newly proposed discipline of socio-hydrology (Sivapalan et al., 2012). An exploratory model with the appropriate level of simplification can be valuable to improve our under...

Alvarez, J., Bilancini, E., D'Alessandro, S., and Porcile, G.: Agricultural institutions, industrialization and growth: the case of New Zealand and Uruguay in 1870–1940, Explor. Econ. Hist., 48, 151–168, 2011.; Baudena, M., Boni, G., Ferraris, L., von Hardenberg, J., and Provenzale, A.: Vegetation response to rainfall intermittency in drylands: results from a simple ecohydrological box model, Adv. Water Resour., 30, 1320–1328, 2007.; Bilancini, E. and D'Alessandro, S.: L...

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Bayesian Objective Classification of Extreme Uk Daily Rainfall for...

By: P. E. McSharry; H. J. E. Rodda; M. A. Little

Description: Systems Analysis, Modelling and Prediction Group, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PJ, UK. In this study we describe an objective classification scheme for extreme UK daily precipitation to be used in flood risk analysis applications. We create a simplified representation of the spatial layout of extreme events based on a new digital archive of UK rainfall. This simplification allows a Bayesian clustering algorithm to compress these representations down...

Bardossy, A., Muster, H., Duckstein, L., and Bogardi, I.: Knowledge based classification of circulation patterns for stochastic precipitation modeling, in: Stochastic and statistical methods in hydrology and environmental engineering, edited by: Hipel, K. W., Kluver Academic Publishers, 19–32, 1994.; Barry, R. G. and Chorley, R. J.: Atmosphere, weather, and climate, 8th Ed., Routledge, London, New York, XVI, 421~pp., 2003.; Benzi, R., Deidda, R., and Marrocu, M.: Charact...

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Spatial Variation of Shallow and Deep Soil Moisture in the Semi-ar...

By: L. Chen; F. Jia; W. Wei; B. Mo; L. Yang

Description: State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. Soil moisture in deep soil layers is the only relatively stable water resource for introduced vegetation in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China. Characterizing the spatial variation of deep soil moisture is significant for vegetation restoration with respect to the topographic conditions. In this stu...

Chen, H., Shao, M., and Li, Y.: Soil desiccation in the Loess Plateau of China, Geoderma, 143, 91–100, 2008a.; Cantón, Y., Solé-Benet, A., and Domingo, F.: Temporal and spatial patterns of soil moisture in semiarid badlands of SE Spain, J. Hydrol., 285, 199–214, 2004.; Cao, S., Chen, L., and Yu, X.: Impact of China's Grain for Green Project on the landscape of vulnerable arid and semi-arid agricultural regions: a case study in Northern Shaanxi Province, J. Appl. Ecol., 4...

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A Steady-state Saturation Model to Determine the Subsurface Travel...

By: R. Ardakanian; A. Shamsai; A. Talebi; T. Sabzevari

Description: Department of Civil Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. The travel time of subsurface flow in complex hillslopes (hillslopes with different plan shape and profile curvature) is an important parameter in predicting the subsurface flow in catchments. This time depends on the hillslopes geometry (plan shape and profile curvature), soil properties and climate conditions. The saturation capacity of hillslopes affec...

Agiralioglu, N.: A Comparison of Water Lag Times for Converging and Plane Surfaces, Nordic Hydrology, 16, 169–176, 1985.; Akan, A. O.: Urban stormwater Hydrology-A Guide to Engineering Calculations, Technomic, Lancaster, PA, ISBN: 0-87762-966-6, 1993.; Aryal, S. K., O'Loughlin, E. M., and Mein, R. G.: A similarity approach to determine response times to steady-state saturation in landscapes, Adv. Water Resour., 28, 99–115, 2005.; Aryal, S. K., Mein, R. G.,and O'Loughlin,...

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Hydrological Dynamics of Water Sources in a Mediterranean Lagoon :...

By: I. E. Gönenc; A. Ekdal; P. Maloszewski; C. Stumpp

Description: Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Groundwater Ecology, Neuherberg, Germany. Lagoons are important ecosystems occupying large coastal areas worldwide. Lagoons contain various mixtures of marine and freshwater sources which are highly dynamic in time. However, it often remains a challenge to identify and quantify dynamic changes of water sources, particularly in heterogeneous lagoon systems like ...

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Modelled Sensitivity of the Snow Regime to Topography, Shrub Fract...

By: J. Pomeroy; R. Essery; C. B. Ménard

Description: Arctic Research Centre, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland. Recent studies show that shrubs are colonizing higher latitudes and altitudes in the Arctic. Shrubs affect the wind transport, accumulation and melt of snow, but there have been few sensitivity studies of how shrub expansion might affect snowmelt rates and timing. Here, a blowing snow transport and sublimation model is used to simulate premelt snow distributions and a 3-so...

Baker, D., Skaggs, R., and Ruschy, D.: Snow depth required to mask underlying surface, J. Appl. Meteorol., 30, 387–392, 1991.; Best, M. J., Pryor, M., Clark, D. B., Rooney, G. G., Essery, R. L. H., Ménard, C. B., Edwards, J. M., Hendry, M. A., Porson, A., Gedney, N., Mercado, L. M., Sitch, S., Blyth, E., Boucher, O., Cox, P. M., Grimmond, C. S. B., and Harding, R. J.: The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), model description – Part 1: Energy and water fluxes, Ge...

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An Application of Gleam to Estimating Global Evaporation : Volume ...

By: T. R. H. Holmes; J. H. Gash; D. G. Miralles; A. J. Dolman; R. A. M. De Jeu

Description: Department of Hydrology, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. A physics-based methodology is applied to estimate global land-surface evaporation from multi-satellite observations. GLEAM (Global Land-surface Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology) combines a wide range of remotely sensed observations within a Priestley and Taylor-based framework. Daily actual evaporation is derived at quarter degree resolution over the world's land s...

Baumgartner, A. and Reichel, E.: The World Water Balance: Mean Annual Global Continental and Maritime Precipitation, Evaporation and Runoff, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Oxford, UK and New York, USA, 1975.; Blyth, E. M., Shuttleworth, W. J, and Harding, R. J.: Summary of the GEWEX International Symposium on Global Land-surface Evaporation and Climate, Hydrol. Process., 23, 3411–3412, 2009.; Choudhury, B. J. and DiGirolamo, N. E.: A ...

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Improved Spatial Mapping of Leaf Area Index Using Hyperspectral Re...

By: G. P. W. Jewitt; H. H. Bulcock

Description: School of Bioresources Engineering and Environmental Hydrology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. The use of remote sensing technology as a tool to estimate leaf area index (LAI) for use in estimating canopy interception is described in this paper. The establishment of commercial forestry plantations in natural grassland vegetation, results in increased transpiration and interception which in turn, results in a streamflow reduc...

Baret, F. and Guyot, G.: Potentials and limits of Vegetation Indices for LAI and APAR assessment, Remote Sens. Environ., 35, 161–173, 1991.; Beven, K. J.: Rainfall-Runoff modelling: the primer, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 9 pp., 2001.; Bongonko, M. N.: Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture Gradients in Millingrwaard, The Netherland, www.phylares.vub.ac.be/Thiessen/2005.pdf, 2005.; Burger, C., Everson, C....

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Validation of Modis Snow Cover Images Over Austria : Volume 3, Iss...

By: G. Blöschl; J. Parajka

Description: Institute for Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Austria. This study evaluates the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow cover product over the territory of Austria. The aims are (a) to analyse the spatial and temporal variability of the MODIS snow product classes, (b) to examine the accuracy of the MODIS snow product against in situ snow depth data, and (c) to identify the main factors that m...

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Dye Staining and Excavation of a Lateral Preferential Flow Network...

By: Y. Alila; M. Weiler; R. O. Hudson; A. E. Anderson

Description: Sustainable Resource Development, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Preferential flow paths have been found to be important for runoff generation, solute transport, and slope stability in many areas around the world. Although many studies have identified the particular characteristics of individual features and measured the runoff generation and solute transport within hillslopes, very few studies have determined how individual features are hydraulically connec...

Anderson, A. E., Weiler, M., Alila, Y., and Hudson, R. O.: Subsurface flow velocities in a hillslope with lateral preferential flow, Water Resour. Res., in review, 2009.; Bouma, J., Jongerius, A., Boersma, O., Jager, A., and Schoonderbeek, D.: Function of Different Types of Macropores During Saturated Flow through 4 Swelling Soil Horizons, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 41(5), 945–950, 1977.; Brand, E. W., Dale, M. J., and Nash, J. M.: Technical Note: Soil pipes and slope stabil...

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Impact of Long-term Drainage on Summer Groundwater Flow Patterns i...

By: C. Blodau; E. Humphreys; J. H. Fleckenstein; N. T. Roulet; J. Talbot; B. J. Kopp

Description: Limnological Research Station and Department of Hydrology, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany. Long-term impacts of drier conditions on the hydrology of northern peatlands are poorly understood. We used long-term drainage near a historic drainage ditch, separating an area from the main peatland, as an analogue for long-term drying in a northern temperate bog. The objective was to identify the impact of drier conditions on ecohydrological processes...

Appleby, P. G. and Oldfield, F.: The calculation of lead-210 dates assuming a constant rate of supply of unsupported 210Pb to the sediment, Catena, 5, 1–8, 1978.; Baird, A. J., Surridge, B. W. J., and Money, R. P.: An assessment of the piezometer method for measuring the hydraulic conductivity of a Cladium mariscusPhragmites australis root mat in a Norfolk (UK) fen, Hydrol. Process., 18, 275–291, 2004.; Baird, A. J., Eades, P. A., and Surridge...

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A New Method of Rainfall Temporal Downscaling: a Case Study on San...

By: R. Ye; D. Y. Qin; G. F. Chen; H. Wang; Y. X. Guo

Description: Department of Water resources research, China institute of water resources and hydropower research, Beijing, China. Distributed hydrological models are effective tools for Predictions in Ungauged Basins (PUB). The rainfall input uncertainty is an important source of hydrological model uncertainty. With the improvement of hydrological model accuracy, the requirements of the accuracy of input data are correspondingly improved. Daily rainfall data is the mo...

Kondo, J. and Xu, J.: Seasonal variations in the heat and water balances for non-vegetated surfaces, J. Appl. Meteorol., 36, 1676–1696, 1997; Liu, S., Xia, J., and Mo, X.: Advances in Prediction s in Ungauged Basins, Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering, 36(2), 9–12, 2005.; Neitsch, S. L., Arnold, J. G., Kiniry, J. R., and Williams, J. R.: Soil and Water Assessment Tool Theoretical Document Version, 2005, Texas, 2005.; Sivapalan, M., Takeuchi, K., Franks, S. W., Gu...

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Intercomparison of Four Remote-sensing-based Energy Balance Method...

By: G. Boulet; J. Ezzahar; L. Jarlan; G. Chehbouni; J. Garatuza-payan; J. C. Rodriguez; R. Fieuzal; O. Merlin; J. Chirouze; S. Er-raki; C. Watts; G. Bigeard

Description: Centre d'Etudes Spatiales de la Biosphère, UPS, CNRS, CNES, IRD – UMR5126, Toulouse, France. Instantaneous evapotranspiration rates and surface water stress levels can be deduced from remotely sensed surface temperature data through the surface energy budget. Two families of methods can be defined: the contextual methods, where stress levels are scaled on a given image between hot/dry and cool/wet pixels for a particular vegetation cover, and single-pixe...

Allen, R. G., Tasumi, M., and Trezza, R.: Satellite-Based Energy Balance for Mapping Evapotranspiration with Internalized Calibration (METRIC) – Model, J. Irrig. Drain. Eng., 133, 380–394, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(2007)133:4(380), 2007.; Anderson, M. C., Kustas, W. P., Norman, J. M., Hain, C. R., Mecikalski, J. R., Schultz, L., González-Dugo, M. P., Cammalleri, C., d'Urso, G., Pimstein, A., and Gao,...

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Calibration and Evaluation of a Semi-distributed Watershed Model o...

By: C. Ringler; L. Longuevergne; B. Scanlon; H. Xie

Description: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2033 K Street NW, Washington D.C., 20006, USA. Irrigation development is rapidly expanding in mostly rainfed Sub-Saharan Africa. This expansion underscores the need for a more comprehensive understanding of water resources beyond surface water. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites provide valuable information on spatio-temporal variability of water storage. The objective of this study w...

Lehner, B., Verdin, K., and Jarvis, A.: New global hydrography derived from spaceborne elevation data, Eos Transactions AGU, 89, 93–94, 2008.; Alkama, R., Decharme, B., Douville, H., Becker, M., Cazenave, A., Sheffield, J., Voldoire, A., Tyteca, S., and Le Moigne, P.: Global Evaluation of the ISBA-TRIP Continental Hydrological System, Part I: Comparison to GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Estimates and In Situ River Discharges, J. Hydrometeorol., 11, 583–600, 2010.; Amogu...

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A Global Evaluation of Streamflow Drought Characteristics : Volume...

By: H. Hisdal; S. Demuth; L. M. Tallaksen; A. K. Fleig

Description: Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, Norway. How drought is characterised depends on the purpose and region of the study and the available data. In case of regional applications or global comparison a standardisation of the methodology to characterise drought is preferable. In this study the threshold level method in combination with three common pooling procedures is applied to daily streamflow series from a wide range of hydrological regimes...

ASTHyDA: Analysis, Synthesis and Transfer of Knowledge and Tools on Hydrological Drought Assessment through a European Network, http://www.geo.uio.no/drought, 2006.; Ben-Zvi, A.: Indices of hydrological drought in Israel, J. Hydrol., 92, 179–191, 1987.; Clausen, B. and Pearson, C. P.: Regional frequency analysis of annual maximum streamflow drought, J. Hydrol., 173, 111–130, 1995.; Cancelliere, A.: Interactive comment on A global evaluation of streamflow drought characte...

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