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Timeline of atomic and subatomic physics

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Title: Timeline of atomic and subatomic physics  
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Subject: Heinrich Hertz, Atomic physics, Experimental physics, Photoelectric effect, History of quantum mechanics
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Timeline of atomic and subatomic physics

A timeline of atomic and subatomic physics.

Early beginnings

  1. 600 BC Jainism calls atom Paramanu which can neither be created nor destroyed. It is eternal, i.e., it existed in the past, exists in the present and will continue to exist in the future. It is the permanent basis of the physical existence. The entire physical existence is composed of these ultimate atoms.[1]
  2. 440 BC Democritus speculates about fundamental indivisible particles—calls them "atoms"
  3. 2nd century BC Kanada theorizes the existence of four kinds of atoms, which could combine to produce diatomic and triatomic molecules.[2]

The beginning of chemistry

Timeline of classical mechanics

The age of quantum mechanics

The formation and successes of the Standard Model

Quantum field theories beyond the Standard Model

  • 2003 Leonid Vainerman. Quantum groups, Hopf algebras and quantum field applications.[24]
  • Noncommutative quantum field theory
  • M.R. Douglas and N. A. Nekrasov (2001) "Noncommutative field theory," Rev. Mod. Phys. 73: 977–1029.
  • Szabo, R. J. (2003) "Quantum Field Theory on Noncommutative Spaces," Physics Reports 378: 207–99. An expository article on noncommutative quantum field theories.
  • Noncommutative quantum field theory, see statistics on
  • Seiberg, N. and E. Witten (1999) "String Theory and Noncommutative Geometry," Journal of High Energy Physics
  • Sergio Doplicher, Klaus Fredenhagen and John Roberts, Sergio Doplicher, Klaus Fredenhagen, John E. Roberts (1995) The quantum structure of spacetime at the Planck scale and quantum fields," Commun. Math. Phys. 172: 187–220.
  • Alain Connes (1994) Noncommutative geometry. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-185860-X.
  • -------- (1995) "Noncommutative geometry and reality", J. Math. Phys. 36: 6194.
  • -------- (1996) "Gravity coupled with matter and the foundation of noncommutative geometry," Comm. Math. Phys. 155: 109.
  • -------- (2006) "Noncommutative geometry and physics,"
  • -------- and M. Marcolli, Noncommutative Geometry: Quantum Fields and Motives. American Mathematical Society (2007).
  • Chamseddine, A., A. Connes (1996) "The spectral action principle," Comm. Math. Phys. 182: 155.
  • Chamseddine, A., A. Connes, M. Marcolli (2007) "Gravity and the Standard Model with neutrino mixing," Adv. Theor. Math. Phys. 11: 991.
  • Jureit, Jan-H., Thomas Krajewski, Thomas Schücker, and Christoph A. Stephan (2007) "On the noncommutative standard model," Acta Phys. Polon. B38: 3181–3202.
  • Schücker, Thomas (2005) Forces from Connes's geometry. Lecture Notes in Physics 659, Springer.
  • Noncommutative standard model
  • Noncommutative geometry

See also


  1. ^ Zaberi, J.S. and Muni Mahendra Kumar, 2008, Microcosmology: Atom In Jain Philosophy & Modern Science.
  2. ^ Kapoor, Subodh. The Indian Encyclopaedia, Volume 1. Cosmo Publications. p. 5643. ISBN 8177552570.
  3. ^  
  4. ^ Gilbert N. Lewis. Letter to the editor of Nature (Vol. 118, Part 2, December 18, 1926, pp. 874–875).
  5. ^ The origin of the word "photon"
  6. ^ The Davisson–Germer experiment, which demonstrates the wave nature of the electron
  7. ^ A. Abragam and B. Bleaney. 1970. Electron Parmagnetic Resonance of Transition Ions, Oxford University Press: Oxford, U.K., p. 911
  8. ^ Feynman, R.P. (2006) [1985].  
  9. ^ Richard Feynman; QED. Princeton University Press: Princeton, (1982)
  10. ^ Richard Feynman; Lecture Notes in Physics. Princeton University Press: Princeton, (1986)
  11. ^  
  12. ^ Feynman, R.P. (2006) [1985].  
  13. ^ Schweber, Silvan S. ; Q.E.D. and the men who made it: Dyson, Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomonaga, Princeton University Press (1994) [ISBN 0-691-03327-7]
  14. ^ Schwinger, Julian ; Selected Papers on Quantum Electrodynamics, Dover Publications, Inc. (1958) [ISBN 0-486-60444-6]
  15. ^ *Kleinert, H. (2008). Multivalued Fields in Condensed Matter, Electrodynamics, and Gravitation.  
  16. ^ Yndurain, Francisco Jose ; Quantum Chromodynamics: An Introduction to the Theory of Quarks and Gluons, Springer Verlag, New York, 1983. [ISBN 0-387-11752-0]
  17. ^ a b Frank Wilczek (1999) "Quantum field theory", Reviews of Modern Physics 71: S83–S95. Also doi=10.1103/Rev. Mod. Phys. 71.
  18. ^ Weinberg, Steven ; The Quantum Theory of Fields: Foundations (vol. I), Cambridge University Press (1995) [ISBN 0-521-55001-7] The first chapter (pp. 1–40) of Weinberg's monumental treatise gives a brief history of Q.F.T., pp. 608.
  19. ^ a b Weinberg, Steven; The Quantum Theory of Fields: Modern Applications (vol. II), Cambridge University Press:Cambridge, U.K. (1996) [ISBN 0-521-55001-7], pp. 489.
  20. ^ * Gerard 't Hooft (2007) "The Conceptual Basis of Quantum Field Theory" in Butterfield, J., and John Earman, eds., Philosophy of Physics, Part A. Elsevier: 661-730.
  21. ^ Pais, Abraham ; Inward Bound: Of Matter & Forces in the Physical World, Oxford University Press (1986) [ISBN 0-19-851997-4] Written by a former Einstein assistant at Princeton, this is a beautiful detailed history of modern fundamental physics, from 1895 (discovery of X-rays) to 1983 (discovery of vectors bosons at C.E.R.N.)
  22. ^ "Press Release: The 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry". 12 October 1999. Retrieved 30 June 2013. 
  23. ^ Weinberg, Steven; The Quantum Theory of Fields: Supersymmetry (vol. III), Cambridge University Press:Cambridge, U.K. (2000) [ISBN 0-521-55002-5], pp. 419.
  24. ^ Leonid Vainerman, editor. 2003. Locally Compact Quantum Groups and Groupoids. Proceed. Theor. Phys. Strassbourg in 2002, Walter de Gruyter: Berlin and New York

External links

  • Alain Connes official website with downloadable papers.
  • Alain Connes's Standard Model.
  • A History of Quantum Mechanics
  • A Brief History of Quantum Mechanics
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