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Mixed reality

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Title: Mixed reality  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Reality–virtuality continuum, Augmented virtuality, Head-mounted display, Augmented reality, Mixed reality
Collection: Mixed Reality, Multimodal Interaction, Reality by Type, User Interface Techniques
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Mixed reality

Mixed reality (MR), sometimes referred to as hybrid reality[1] (encompassing both augmented reality and augmented virtuality), refers to the merging of real and virtual worlds to produce new environments and visualisations where physical and digital objects co-exist and interact in real time. Not taking place only in the physical world or the virtual world,[1] but a mix of reality and virtual reality, encompassing augmented reality and augmented virtuality.[2]

An Example Mixed Reality: Virtual characters mixed into a live video stream of the real world.[3]


  • Definition 1
    • Paul Milgram and Fumio Kishino: Virtuality Continuum 1.1
    • Interreality Physics 1.2
  • Applications 2
  • Display Technologies 3
  • Examples 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7


Paul Milgram and Fumio Kishino: Virtuality Continuum

In 1994 Paul Milgram and Fumio Kishino defined a mixed reality as "...anywhere between the extrema of the virtuality continuum." (VC)[2], where the Virtuality Continuum extends from the completely real through to the completely virtual environment with augmented reality and augmented virtuality ranging between.

Reality-Virtuality Continuum
"The conventionally held view of a Virtual Reality (VR) environment is one in which the participant-observer is totally immersed in, and able to interact with, a completely synthetic world. Such a world may mimic the properties of some real-world environments, either existing or fictional; however, it can also exceed the bounds of physical reality by creating a world in which the physical laws ordinarily governing space, time, mechanics, material properties, etc. no longer hold. What may be overlooked in this view, however, is that the VR label is also frequently used in association with a variety of other environments, to which total immersion and complete synthesis do not necessarily pertain, but which fall somewhere along a virtuality continuum. In this paper we focus on a particular subclass of VR related technologies that involve the merging of real and virtual worlds, which we refer to generically as Mixed Reality (MR)."

Interreality Physics

In a physics context, the term "interreality system"[4] refers to a virtual reality system coupled to its real-world counterpart. A paper in the May 2007 issue of Physical Review E[5] describes an interreality system comprising a real physical pendulum coupled to a pendulum that only exists in virtual reality. This system apparently has two stable states of motion: a "Dual Reality" state in which the motion of the two pendula are uncorrelated and a "Mixed Reality" state in which the pendula exhibit stable phase-locked motion which is highly correlated. The use of the terms "mixed reality" and "interreality" in the context of physics is clearly defined but may be slightly different from in other fields.


A topic of much research, MR has found its way into a number of applications, evident in the arts and entertainment industries. However, MR is also branching out into the business and education worlds with systems such as these:

  • IPCM – Interactive Product Content Management

Moving from static product catalogs to interactive 3D smart digital replicas. Solution consists of application software products with scalable license model.

  • SBL – Simulation Based Learning

Moving from e-learning to s-learning — state of the art in knowledge transfer for education. Simulation/VR based training, interactive experiential learning. Software and display solutions with scalable licensed curriculum development model.

  • Military Training

Combat reality is simulated and represented in complex layered data through HMD.

Display Technologies

Here are some more commonly used MR display technologies:


  • Example projects from the Mixed Reality Lab at National University of Singapore / Keio University.
  • Examples of Augmented Reality with vision-based positioning system.
  • Ars Electronica
  • wIzQubes Examples of Mixed Reality with vision-based positioning system for education.
  • EyeToy
  • FightBox
  • Nokia Point & Find
  • Interactive Multimedia Lab A research lab at the National University of Singapore focuses on Multi-modal Mixed Reality interfaces.
  • Mixed Reality vs. Mixed Realities
  • The Center for Research in Computing and the Arts and Calit2 at UCSD are home to a number of Mixed Reality projects, including Mixed Reality Performances by Micha Cárdenas and Elle Mehrmand
  • The Dawn of Mixed Reality An introduction of Mixed Reality and compilation of example projects

See also


  1. ^ a b de Souza e Silva, Adriana; Sutko, Daniel M. (2009). Digital Cityscapes: merging digital and urban playspaces. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc. 
  2. ^ a b P. Milgram and A. F. Kishino (1994). "IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems". pp. 1321–1329. Retrieved 2013-10-17. 
  3. ^ R. Freeman, A. Steed and B. Zhou, Rapid Scene Modelling, Registration and Specification for Mixed Reality Systems Proceedings of ACM Virtual Reality Software and Technology, pp. 147-150, Monterey, California, November 2005.
  4. ^ J. van Kokswijk, Hum@n, Telecoms & Internet as Interface to Interreality (Bergboek, The Netherlands, 2003).
  5. ^ V. Gintautas and A. W. Hubler, Experimental evidence for mixed reality states in an interreality system Phys. Rev. E 75, 057201 (2007).

External links

  • Fleischmann, Monika; Strauss, Wolfgang (eds.) (2001). Proceedings of »CAST01//Living in Mixed Realities« Intl. Conf. On Communication of Art, Science and Technology, Fraunhofer IMK 2001, 401. ISSN 1618–1379 (Print), ISSN 1618–1387 (Internet).
  • Interactive Multimedia Lab A research lab at the National University of Singapore focuses on Multi-modal Mixed Reality interfaces.
  • Mixed Reality Geographical Information System (MRGIS)
  • Costanza, E., Kunz, A., and Fjeld, M. 2009. Mixed Reality: A Survey Costanza, E., Kunz, A., and Fjeld, M. 2009. Mixed Reality: A Survey. In Human Machine interaction: Research Results of the MMI Program, D. Lalanne and J. Kohlas (Eds.) LNCS 5440, pp. 47–68.
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