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1 E31 J

This list compares various energies in joules (J), organized by order of magnitude.

List of orders of magnitude for energy
Factor (Joules) SI prefix Value Item
10−33   2×10−33 J average kinetic energy of translational motion of a molecule at the lowest temperature reached, 100 picokelvins as of 2003[1]
10−28   6.6×10−28 J energy of a typical AM radio photon (1 MHz) (4×10−9 eV)[2]
10−24 yocto- (yJ) 1.6×10−24 J energy of a typical microwave oven photon (2.45 GHz) (1×10−5 eV)[3][4]
10−23   2×10−23 J average kinetic energy of translational motion of a molecule in the Boomerang Nebula, the coldest place known outside of a laboratory, at a temperature of 1 kelvin[5][6]
10−22   2-3000×10−22 J energy of infrared light photons[7]
10−21 zepto- (zJ) 1.7×10−21 J 1 kJ/mol, converted to energy per molecule[8]
2.1×10−21 J thermal energy in each degree of freedom of a molecule at 25 °C (kT/2) (0.01 eV)[9]
2.856×10−21 J By Landauer's principle, the minimum amount of energy required at 25 °C to change one bit of information.
3–7×10−21 J energy of a van der Waals interaction between atoms (0.02–0.04 eV)[10][11]
4.1×10−21 J "kT" at 25 °C, a common rough approximation for the total thermal energy of each molecule in a system (0.03 eV)[12]
7–22×10−21 J energy of a hydrogen bond (0.04 to 0.13 eV)[10][13]
10−20   4.5×10−20 J upper bound of the mass-energy of a neutrino in particle physics (0.28 eV)[14][15]
10−19   1.6×10−19 J ≈1 electronvolt (eV)[16]
3–5×10−19 J energy range of photons in visible light[17][18]
3–14×10−19 J energy of a covalent bond (2–9 eV)[10][19]
5–200×10−19 J energy of ultraviolet light photons[7]
10−18 atto- (aJ)    
10−17   2-2000×10−17 J energy range of X-ray photons[7]
10−16      
10−15 femto- (fJ)    
10−14   > 2×10−14 J energy of gamma ray photons[7]
2.7×10−14 J upper bound of the mass-energy of a muon neutrino[20][21]
8.2×10−14 J rest mass-energy of an electron[22]
10−13   1.6×10−13 J 1 megaelectronvolt (MeV)[23]
10−12 pico- (pJ) 2.3×10−12 J kinetic energy of neutrons produced by D-T fusion, used to trigger fission (14.1 MeV)[24][25]
10−11   3.4×10−11 J average total energy released in the nuclear fission of one uranium-235 atom (215 MeV)[26][27]
10−10   1.5030×10−10 J rest mass-energy of a proton[28]
1.505×10−10 J rest mass-energy of a neutron[29]
1.6×10−10 J 1 gigaelectronvolt (GeV)[30]
3.0×10−10 J rest mass-energy of a deuteron[31]
6.0×10−10 J rest mass-energy of an alpha particle[32]
10−9 nano- (nJ) 1.6×10−9 J 10 GeV[33]
8×10−9 J initial operating energy per beam of the CERN Large Electron Positron Collider in 1989 (50 GeV)[34][35]
10−8   1.3×10−8 J mass-energy of a W boson (80.4 GeV)[36][37]
1.5×10−8 J mass-energy of a Z boson (91.2 GeV)[38][39]
1.6×10−8 J 100 GeV[40]
2×10−8 J mass-energy of the particle believed to be the Higgs Boson (125.3 GeV)[41]
6.4×10−8 J operating energy per proton of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron accelerator in 1976[42][43]
10−7   1×10−7 J ≡ 1 erg[44]
1.6×10−7 J 1 TeV (teraelectronvolt),[45] about the kinetic energy of a flying mosquito[46]
5.6×10−7 J energy per proton in the CERN Large Hadron Collider in 2011 (3.5 TeV)[47][48]
10−6 micro- (µJ)    
10−5      
10−4      
10−3 milli- (mJ)    
10−2 centi- (cJ)    
10−1 deci- (dJ) 1.1×10−1 J energy of an American half-dollar falling 1-metre[49][50]
100 J 1 J ≡ 1 N·m (newtonmetre)
1 J ≡ 1 W·s (watt-second)
1 J kinetic energy produced as an extra small apple (~100 grams[51]) falls 1 meter against Earth's gravity[52]
1 J energy required to heat 1 gram of dry, cool air by 1-degree Celsius[53]
1.4 J ≈ 1 ft·lbf (foot-pound force)[44]
4.184 J ≡ 1 thermochemical calorie (small calorie)[44]
4.1868 J ≡ 1 International (Steam) Table calorie[54]
8 J Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin theoretical upper limit for the energy of a cosmic ray coming from a distant source[55][56]
101 deca- (daJ) 5×101 J most energetic cosmic ray ever detected, in 1991[57]
102 hecto- (hJ) 1×102 J flash energy of a typical pocket camera electronic flash capacitor (100–400 µF @ 330 V)[58][59]
3×102 J energy of a lethal dose of X-rays[60]
3×102 J kinetic energy of an average person jumping as high as they can[61][62][63]
3.3×102 J energy to melt 1 g of ice[64]
> 3.6×102 J kinetic energy of 800 g[65] standard men's javelin thrown at > 30 m/s[66] by elite javelin throwers[67]
5–20×102 J energy output of a typical photography studio strobe light in a single flash[68]
6.0×102 J kinetic energy of 2 kg[69] standard men's discus thrown at 24.4 m/s by the world record holder Jürgen Schult[70]
6×102 J use of a 10-watt flashlight for 1-minute
7.5×102 J a power of 1 horsepower applied for 1 second[44]
7.8×102 J kinetic energy of 7.26 kg[71] standard men's shot thrown at 14.7 m/s by the world record holder Randy Barnes[72]
103 kilo- (kJ) 1.1×103 J ≈ 1 British thermal unit (BTU), depending on the temperature[44]
1.4×103 J total solar radiation received from the Sun by 1 square meter at the altitude of Earth's orbit per second (solar constant)[73]
1.8×103 J kinetic energy of M16 rifle bullet (5.56x45mm NATO M855, 4.1 g fired at 930 m/s)[74]
2.3×103 J energy to vaporize 1 g of water into steam[75]
3×103 J Lorentz force can crusher pinch[76]
3.4×103 J kinetic energy of world-record men's hammer throw (7.26 kg[77] thrown at 30.7 m/s[78] in 1986)[79]
3.6×103 J ≡ 1 W·h (watt-hour)[44]
4.2×103 J energy released by explosion of 1 gram of TNT[44][80]
4.2×103 J ≈ 1 food Calorie (large calorie)
~7×103 J muzzle energy of an elephant gun, e.g. firing a .458 Winchester Magnum[81]
9×103 J energy in an alkaline AA battery[82]
104   1.7×104 J energy released by the metabolism of 1 gram of carbohydrates[83] or protein[84]
3.8×104 J energy released by the metabolism of 1 gram of fat[85]
4–5×104 J energy released by the combustion of 1 gram of gasoline[86]
5×104 J kinetic energy of 1 gram of matter moving at 10 km/s[87]
105   3×105 J15×105 J kinetic energy of an automobile at highway speeds (1 to 5 tons[88] at 89 km/h or 55 mph)[89]
5×105 J kinetic energy of 1 gram of a meteor hitting Earth[90]
106 mega- (MJ) 1×106 J kinetic energy of a 2 tonne[88] vehicle at 32 metres per second (72 miles per hour)[91]
1.2×106 J approximate food energy of a snack such as a Snickers bar (280 food calories)[92]
3.6×106 J = 1 kW·h (kilowatt-hour) (used for electricity)[44]
8.4×106 J recommended food energy intake per day for a moderately active woman (2000 food calories)[93][94]
107   1×107 J kinetic energy of the armor-piercing round fired by the assault guns of the ISU-152 tank[95]
1.1×107 J recommended food energy intake per day for a moderately active man (2600 food calories)[93][96]
3.7×107 J $1 of electricity at a cost of $0.10/kWh (the US average retail cost in 2009)[97][98][99]
4×107 J energy from the combustion of 1 cubic meter of natural gas[100]
4.2×107 J caloric energy consumed by Olympian Michael Phelps on a daily basis during Olympic training[101]
6.3×107 J theoretical minimum energy required to accelerate 1 kg of matter to escape velocity from Earth's surface (ignoring atmosphere)[102]
108   1×108 J kinetic energy of a 55 tonne aircraft at typical landing speed (59 m/s or 115 knots)
1.1×108 J ≈ 1 therm, depending on the temperature[44]
1.1×108 J ≈ 1 Tour de France, or ~90 hours[103] ridden at 5 W/kg[104] by a 65 kg rider[105]
7.3×108 J ≈ energy from burning 16 kilograms of oil (using 135 kg per barrel of light crude)
109 giga- (GJ) 1 .. 10×109 J energy in an average lightning bolt[106] (thunder)
1.1×109 J magnetic stored energy in the world's largest toroidal superconducting magnet for the ATLAS experiment at CERN, Geneva[107]
1.4x109 J theoretical minimum amount of energy required to melt a tonne of steel (380 kW·h)[108][109]
2.0x109 J Energy of an ordinary 61 liter gasoline tank of a car.[86][110][111]
2.0×109 J Planck energy, the unit of energy in Planck units[112]
3.3×109 J approximate average amount of energy expended by a human heart muscle over an 80-year lifetime[113][114]
4.5×109 J average annual energy usage of a standard refrigerator[115][116]
6.1×109 J ≈ 1 bboe (barrel of oil equivalent)[117]
1010   2.3×1010 J kinetic energy of an Airbus A380 at cruising speed (560 tonnes at 562 knots or 289 m/s)
4.2×1010 J ≈ 1 toe (ton of oil equivalent)[117]
5×1010 J yield energy of a Massive Ordnance Air Blast bomb, the second most powerful non-nuclear weapon ever designed[118][119]
7.3×1010 J energy consumed by the average U.S. automobile in the year 2000[120][121][122]
8.6×1010 J ≈ 1 MW·d (megawatt-day), used in the context of power plants[123]
8.8×1010 J total energy released in the nuclear fission of one gram of uranium-235[26][27][124]
1011  
1012 tera- (TJ) 3.4×1012 J max fuel energy of an Airbus A330-300 (97,530 liters[125] of Jet A-1[126])[127]
3.6×1012 J 1 GW·h (gigawatt-hour)[128]
4×1012 J electricity generated by one 20-kg CANDU fuel bundle assuming ~29%[129] thermal efficiency of reactor[130][131]
6.4×1012 J energy contained in jet fuel in a Boeing 747-100B aircraft at max fuel capacity (183,380 liters[132] of Jet A-1[126])[133]
1013   1.1×1013 J energy of the maximum fuel an Airbus A380 can carry (320,000 liters[134] of Jet A-1[126])[135]
1.2×1013 J orbital kinetic energy of the International Space Station (417 tonnes[136] at 7.7 km/s[137])[138]
8.8×1013 J yield of the Fat Man atomic bomb used in World War II (21 kilotons)[139][140]
9.0×1013 J theoretical total mass-energy of 1 gram of matter[141]
1014   6×1014 J energy released by an average hurricane in 1 second[142]
1015 peta- (PJ) > 1015 J energy released by a severe thunderstorm[143]
1.0×1015 J yearly electricity consumption in Greenland as of 2008[144][145]
4.2×1015 J energy released by explosion of 1 megaton of TNT[44][146]
1016   1×1016 J estimated impact energy released in forming Meteor Crater
1.1×1016 J yearly electricity consumption in Mongolia as of 2010[144][147]
9.0×1016 J mass-energy in 1 kilogram of antimatter (or matter)[148]
1017   1×1017 J energy released on the Earth's surface by the magnitude 9.1–9.3 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake[149]
1.7×1017 J total energy from the Sun that strikes the face of the Earth each second[150]
2.1×1017 J yield of the Tsar Bomba, the largest nuclear weapon ever tested (50 megatons)[151][152]
4.2×1017 J yearly electricity consumption of Norway as of 2008[144][153]
8×1017 J estimated energy released by the eruption of the Indonesian volcano, Krakatoa, in 1883[154][155]
1018 exa- (EJ) 1.4×1018 J yearly electricity consumption of South Korea as of 2009[144][156]
1019   1.4×1019 J yearly electricity consumption in the U.S. as of 2009[144][157]
1.4×1019J yearly electricity production in the U.S. as of 2009[158][159]
5×1019 J energy released in 1-day by an average hurricane in producing rain (400 times greater than the wind energy)[142]
6.4×1019 J yearly electricity consumption of the world as of 2008[160][161]
6.8×1019 J yearly electricity generation of the world as of 2008[160][162]
1020   5.0x1020 J total world annual energy consumption in 2010[163][164]
8.0×1020 J estimated global uranium resources for generating electricity 2005[165][166][167][168]
1021 zetta- (ZJ) 6.9×1021 J estimated energy contained in the world's natural gas reserves as of 2010[163][169]
7.9×1021 J estimated energy contained in the world's petroleum reserves as of 2010[163][170]
1022   1.5×1022J total energy from the Sun that strikes the face of the Earth each day[150][171]
2.4×1022 J estimated energy contained in the world's coal reserves as of 2010[163][172]
2.9×1022 J identified global uranium-238 resources using fast reactor technology[165]
3.9×1022 J estimated energy contained in the world's fossil fuel reserves as of 2010[163][173]
4×1022 J estimated total energy released by the magnitude 9.1–9.3 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake[174]
1023   1×1023 J Amount of energy added to climate by anthropogenic greenhouse gasses
2.2×1023 J total global uranium-238 resources using fast reactor technology[165]
5×1023 J approximate energy released in the formation of the Chicxulub Crater in the Yucatán Peninsula[175]
1024 yotta- (YJ) 5.5×1024 J total energy from the Sun that strikes the face of the Earth each year[150][176]
1025      
1026   1.3×1026 J conservative estimate of the energy released by the impact that created the Caloris basin on Mercury
3.8×1026 J total energy output of the Sun each second[177]
1027      
1028   3.8×1028 J kinetic energy of the Moon in its orbit around the Earth (counting only its velocity relative to the Earth)[178][179]
1029   2.1×1029 J rotational energy of the Earth[180][181][182]
1030   1.8×1030 J gravitational binding energy of Mercury
1031   3.3×1031 J total energy output of the Sun each day[177][183]
1032   2×1032 J gravitational binding energy of the Earth[184]
1033   2.7×1033 J Earth's kinetic energy in its orbit[185]
1034   1.2×1034 J total energy output of the Sun each year[177][186]
1039   6.6×1039 J theoretical total mass-energy of the Moon
1041   5.4×1041 J theoretical total mass-energy of the Earth[187][188]
6.9×1041 J gravitational binding energy of the Sun[189]
1043   5×1043 J total energy of all gamma rays in a typical gamma-ray burst[190][191]
1044   1–2×1044 J estimated energy released in a supernova,[192] sometimes referred to as a foe
1046   1×1046 J estimated energy released in a hypernova[193]
1047   1.8×1047 J theoretical total mass-energy of the Sun[194][195]
1047   8.8×1047 J GRB 080916C - the most powerful Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) ever recorded - total isotropic energy output estimated at 8.8 × 1047 joules (8.8 × 1054 erg), or 4.9 times the sun’s mass turned to energy.[196]
1058   4×1058 J visible mass-energy in our galaxy, the Milky Way[197][198]
1059   1×1059 J total mass-energy of the galaxy, including dark matter and dark energy[199][200]
1062   1–2×1062 J total mass-energy of the Local Supercluster, including dark matter[201]
1069   4×1069 J estimated total mass-energy of the observable universe[202]

SI multiples

SI multiples for joule (J)
Submultiples Multiples
Value Symbol Name Value Symbol Name
10−1 J dJ decijoule 101 J daJ decajoule
10−2 J cJ centijoule 102 J hJ hectojoule
10−3 J mJ millijoule 103 J kJ kilojoule
10−6 J µJ microjoule 106 J MJ megajoule
10−9 J nJ nanojoule 109 J GJ gigajoule
10−12 J pJ picojoule 1012 J TJ terajoule
10−15 J fJ femtojoule 1015 J PJ petajoule
10−18 J aJ attojoule 1018 J EJ exajoule
10−21 J zJ zeptojoule 1021 J ZJ zettajoule
10−24 J yJ yoctojoule 1024 J YJ yottajoule

This The International System of Units, section 5.2.

See also

Energy portal

Notes

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