World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0002885895
Reproduction Date:

Title: Bohumín  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Cieszyn Silesia, Ostrava, Dětmarovice, Dolní Lutyně, Zaolzie
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Masaryk Square and the town hall in Nový Bohumín
Masaryk Square and the town hall in Nový Bohumín
Flag of Bohumín
Coat of arms of Bohumín
Coat of arms
Bohumín is located in Czech Republic
Location in the Czech Republic
Country Czech Republic
Region Moravian-Silesian
District Karviná
First mentioned 1256
Town parts
 • Mayor Petr Vícha (ČSSD)
 • Total 31.02 km2 (11.98 sq mi)
Elevation 198 m (650 ft)
Population (1 August 2009)
 • Total 22,800
 • Density 740/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
Postal code 435 81 to 935 81

Bohumín (Czech pronunciation: ; Polish: , German: Oderberg) is a town in Karviná District, Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic on the border with Poland. The confluence of the Oder (Odra) and Olza rivers is situated just north of the town. The town lies in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia.

Bohumín consists of Old Bohumín and industrial New Bohumín, while several villages are administratively part of the town. The majority of citizens are Czech; many citizens have Polish ancestry, although the Polish minority in Bohumín is small. Before World War II, the town was inhabited by a large German community, nowadays the city is known as one of the largest community of Romani People in the Czech republic.


  • History 1
  • Transport 2
  • International relations 3
    • Twin towns — Sister cities 3.1
  • Footnotes 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6


The town was first mentioned in a border agreement between House of Hohenzollern, although further development of Bogumin was halted by frequent epidemics of bubonic plague and floodings of the Olza. It was officially known in German as Oderberg, and by the end of the 16th century the majority of citizens followed Protestantism. The successor after the Hohenzollerns in 1620 was Lazar Henckel, whose family of bankers and entrepreneurs hailed from Habsburg-ruled Hungary. In 1624 only 138 permanent residents lived in the town. After defeating Maria Theresa of Austria during the Silesian Wars, King Frederick II of Prussia annexed most of Silesia, although Oderberg remained in Austrian Silesia. The town successively became part of the Austrian Empire (1804) and Austria-Hungary (1867).

After the Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire a modern municipal division was introduced in the re-established Austrian Silesia. The town became a seat of a legal district at first in Friedek and since 1868 in the Freistadt political district.

At the end of the 19th century a wire and rolling mill was built by German industrialists from Berlin, Albert Hahn and Heinrich Eisner. In 1872 the important Kassa-Oderberg railway line was opened to traffic in a nearby Schönichel (Šunychl), which later outgrew Oderberg; this increased the town's importance and contributed to the Polish - Czechoslovak dispute over Cieszyn Silesia after World War I.

According to the censuses conducted in 1880, 1890, 1900 and 1910 the population of the town grew from 1,839 in 1880 to 5,810 in 1910. In terms of the dominant language spoken colloquially the situation was shifting through the censuse. In 1880 and 1890 the majority were Polish-speakers (58.1% in 1880 and 64.8% in 1890), followed by German-speakers (34.8% in 1880 and 27.6% in 1890) and Czech-speakers (6.9% in 1880 and 7.6% in 1890). In 1900 and 1910 the majority were German-speakers (52.8% in 1900, 54.5% in 1910), followed by Polish-speakers (41.7% in 1900 and 38.2% in 1910) and Czech-speakers (5.3% in 1900 and 7.3% in 1910). In In terms of religion, in 1910 the majority were Roman Catholics (91.7%), followed by Protestants (206 or 3.5%), Jews (129 or 2.2%) and others (141 or 2.6%).[3]

After the division of Cieszyn Silesia in 1920, the town became part of Czechoslovakia. Following the Munich Agreement, Bohumín and the Zaolzie region were annexed by Poland in October 1938. The town was then annexed by Nazi Germany at the beginning of World War II. On 1 May 1945 Bohumín was taken by Soviet troops of the 1st Guards Army. After the war it was restored to Czechoslovakia and the remaining German population was expelled westward.

There are few historical buildings remaining in Old Bohumín. It was always small with mostly wooden houses, which burnt down in frequent fires, as did the old town hall with its high tower. An old church still remains however; it was rebuilt in 1850 from its Gothic style to its current form. Another landmark is a tomb of the Henckels, former owners of Bohumín.

The most important landmarks of New Bohumín are the Catholic Heart of Jesus Church from 1896; town hall from 1897–1898; complex of former German schools from 1894–1914; and the Lutheran church from 1901.


Bohumín is one of the most important railway junctions in the Czech Republic. There are lines in the directions of Ostrava ( - Břeclav - Vienna / - Olomouc - Prague), Petrovice u Karviné ( - Katowice), (both built by the Austrian Northern Railway) and Chałupki ( - Racibórz and Wodzisław Śląski). Another important line in the direction of Český Těšín, Žilina, and Košice also originally started here, but was relocated in 1963 and now separates from the line to Petrovice u Karviné in Dětmarovice. There is also an important depot in Bohumín. All trains of the company Czech railways, RegioJet a LEO Express are standing there. LEO Express also operates a bus line to polish towns Katowice and Krakow.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Bohumín is twinned with:


  1. ^ Hosák et al. 1970, 84-85.
  2. ^  
  3. ^ Piątkowski, Kazimierz (1918). Stosunki narodowościowe w Księstwie Cieszyńskiem (in Polish). Cieszyn: Macierz Szkolna Księstwa Cieszyńskiego. pp. 272, 289. 


  • Cicha, Irena; Jaworski, Kazimierz; Ondraszek, Bronisław; Stalmach, Barbara; Stalmach, Jan (2000). Olza od pramene po ujście. Český Těšín: Region Silesia.  
  • Hosák, Ladislav; Rudolf Šrámek (1970). Místní jména na Moravě a ve Slezsku I, A-L. Praha: Academia. 

External links

  • Official website (Czech)

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.