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Brodmann area 9

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Title: Brodmann area 9  
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Subject: Brodmann area 45, Brodmann area 44, Posterior cingulate, Brodmann area 34, Brodmann area 16
Collection: Brodmann Areas
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Brodmann area 9

Brodmann area 9
Latin Area frontalis granularis
NeuroLex ID Brodmann area 9
Anatomical terms of neuroanatomy

Brodmann area 9, or BA9, is part of the frontal cortex in the brain of humans and other primates. It contributes to the dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortex.


  • Guenon 1
  • Functions 2
  • Image 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6


The term Brodmann area 9 refers to a cytoarchitecturally defined portion of the frontal lobe of the guenon. Brodmann-1909 regarded it on the whole as topographically and cytoarchitecturally homologous to the granular frontal area 9 and frontopolar area 10 in the human. Distinctive features (Brodmann-1905): Unlike Brodmann area 6-1909, area 9 has a distinct internal granular layer (IV); unlike Brodmann area 6 or Brodmann area 8-1909, its internal pyramidal layer (V) is divisible into two sublayers, an outer layer 5a of densely distributed medium-size ganglion cells that partially merges with layer IV, and an inner, clearer, cell-poor layer 5b; the pyramidal cells of sublayer 3b of the external pyramidal layer (III) are smaller and sparser in distribution; the external granular layer (II) is narrow, with small numbers of sparsely distributed granule cells.[1]


The area is involved in short term memory,[2] evaluating recency,[3] overriding automatic responses,[4] verbal fluency,[5] error detection,[6] auditory verbal attention,[7] inferring the intention of others,[8] inferring deduction from spatial imagery,[9] inductive reasoning,[10] attributing intention,[11] sustained attention involved in counting a series of auditory stimuli,[12] and lower levels of energy consumption in individuals suffering from bipolar disorder.[13]

The area found on the left hemisphere is at least partially responsible for empathy,[14] idioms,[15][16] processing pleasant and unpleasant emotional scenes,[17] self criticisms[18] and attention to negative emotions.[19]

On the right hemisphere the region is involved in attributing intention,[20] theory of mind,[21] suppressing sadness,[22] working memory,[23][24][25] spatial memory,[26][27] recognition,[28][29][30] recall,[29][31][32] recognizing the emotions of others,[33] planning,[34] calculation,[35][36] semantic and perceptual processing of odors,[37] religiosity,[38] and attention to positive emotions.[19]


See also


  1. ^  This article incorporates text available under the CC BY 3.0 license.
  2. ^ Babiloni C, Ferretti A, Del Gratta C; et al. (May 2005). "Human cortical responses during one-bit delayed-response tasks: an fMRI study". Brain Research Bulletin 65 (5): 383–90.  
  3. ^ Zorrilla LT, Aguirre GK, Zarahn E, Cannon TD, D'Esposito M (November 1996). "Activation of the prefrontal cortex during judgments of recency: a functional MRI study". NeuroReport 7 (15-17): 2803–6.  
  4. ^ Kübler A, Dixon V, Garavan H (August 2006). "Automaticity and reestablishment of executive control-an fMRI study". Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 18 (8): 1331–42.  
  5. ^ Abrahams S, Goldstein LH, Simmons A; et al. (September 2003). "Functional magnetic resonance imaging of verbal fluency and confrontation naming using compressed image acquisition to permit overt responses". Human Brain Mapping 20 (1): 29–40.  
  6. ^ Chevrier AD, Noseworthy MD, Schachar R (December 2007). "Dissociation of response inhibition and performance monitoring in the stop signal task using event-related fMRI". Human Brain Mapping 28 (12): 1347–58.  
  7. ^ Nakai T, Kato C, Matsuo K (2005). "An FMRI study to investigate auditory attention: a model of the cocktail party phenomenon". Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences 4 (2): 75–82.  
  8. ^ Goel V, Grafman J, Sadato N, Hallett M (September 1995). "Modeling other minds". NeuroReport 6 (13): 1741–6.  
  9. ^ Knauff M, Mulack T, Kassubek J, Salih HR, Greenlee MW (April 2002). "Spatial imagery in deductive reasoning: a functional MRI study". Brain Research. Cognitive Brain Research 13 (2): 203–12.  
  10. ^ Goel V, Gold B, Kapur S, Houle S (March 1997). "The seats of reason? An imaging study of deductive and inductive reasoning". NeuroReport 8 (5): 1305–10.  
  11. ^ Fink GR, Marshall JC, Halligan PW; et al. (March 1999). "The neural consequences of conflict between intention and the senses". Brain 122 (3): 497–512.  
  12. ^ Shallice T, Stuss DT, Alexander MP, Picton TW, Derkzen D (2008). "The multiple dimensions of sustained attention". Cortex 44 (7): 794–805.  
  13. ^ Brooks JO, Bearden CE, Hoblyn JC, Woodard SA, Ketter TA (December 2010). "Prefrontal and paralimbic metabolic dysregulation related to sustained attention in euthymic older adults with bipolar disorder". Bipolar Disorders 12 (8): 866–74.  
  14. ^ Farrow TF, Zheng Y, Wilkinson ID; et al. (August 2001). "Investigating the functional anatomy of empathy and forgiveness". NeuroReport 12 (11): 2433–8.  
  15. ^ Maddock RJ, Buonocore MH (August 1997). "Activation of left posterior cingulate gyrus by the auditory presentation of threat-related words: an fMRI study". Psychiatry Research 75 (1): 1–14.  
  16. ^ Lauro LJ, Tettamanti M, Cappa SF, Papagno C (January 2008). "Idiom comprehension: a prefrontal task?". Cerebral Cortex 18 (1): 162–70.  
  17. ^ Lane RD, Reiman EM, Bradley MM; et al. (November 1997). "Neuroanatomical correlates of pleasant and unpleasant emotion". Neuropsychologia 35 (11): 1437–44.  
  18. ^ Longe O, Maratos FA, Gilbert P; et al. (January 2010). "Having a word with yourself: neural correlates of self-criticism and self-reassurance". NeuroImage 49 (2): 1849–56.  
  19. ^ a b Kerestes R, Ladouceur CD, Meda S; et al. (January 2012). "Abnormal prefrontal activity subserving attentional control of emotion in remitted depressed patients during a working memory task with emotional distracters". Psychological Medicine 42 (1): 29–40.  
  20. ^ Brunet E, Sarfati Y, Hardy-Baylé MC, Decety J (February 2000). "A PET investigation of the attribution of intentions with a nonverbal task". NeuroImage 11 (2): 157–66.  
  21. ^ Gallagher HL, Jack AI, Roepstorff A, Frith CD (July 2002). "Imaging the intentional stance in a competitive game". NeuroImage 16 (3 Pt 1): 814–21.  
  22. ^ Kaur S, Sassi RB, Axelson D; et al. (September 2005). "Cingulate cortex anatomical abnormalities in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder". The American Journal of Psychiatry 162 (9): 1637–43.  
  23. ^ Zhang JX, Leung HC, Johnson MK (November 2003). "Frontal activations associated with accessing and evaluating information in working memory: an fMRI study". NeuroImage 20 (3): 1531–9.  
  24. ^ Pochon JB, Levy R, Fossati P; et al. (April 2002). "The neural system that bridges reward and cognition in humans: an fMRI study". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99 (8): 5669–74.  
  25. ^ Raye CL, Johnson MK, Mitchell KJ, Reeder JA, Greene EJ (February 2002). "Neuroimaging a single thought: dorsolateral PFC activity associated with refreshing just-activated information". NeuroImage 15 (2): 447–53.  
  26. ^ Slotnick SD, Moo LR (2006). "Prefrontal cortex hemispheric specialization for categorical and coordinate visual spatial memory". Neuropsychologia 44 (9): 1560–8.  
  27. ^ Leung HC, Gore JC, Goldman-Rakic PS (May 2002). "Sustained mnemonic response in the human middle frontal gyrus during on-line storage of spatial memoranda". Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 14 (4): 659–71.  
  28. ^ Ranganath C, Johnson MK, D'Esposito M (2003). "Prefrontal activity associated with working memory and episodic long-term memory". Neuropsychologia 41 (3): 378–89.  
  29. ^ a b Rugg MD, Fletcher PC, Frith CD, Frackowiak RS, Dolan RJ (December 1996). "Differential activation of the prefrontal cortex in successful and unsuccessful memory retrieval". Brain 119 (6): 2073–83.  
  30. ^ Tulving E, Habib R, Nyberg L, Lepage M, McIntosh AR (1999). "Positron emission tomography correlations in and beyond medial temporal lobes". Hippocampus 9 (1): 71–82.  
  31. ^ Tulving E, Kapur S, Markowitsch HJ, Craik FI, Habib R, Houle S (March 1994). "Neuroanatomical correlates of retrieval in episodic memory: auditory sentence recognition". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 91 (6): 2012–5.  
  32. ^ Düzel E, Picton TW, Cabeza R; et al. (June 2001). "Comparative electrophysiological and hemodynamic measures of neural activation during memory-retrieval". Human Brain Mapping 13 (2): 104–23.  
  33. ^ Bermpohl F, Pascual-Leone A, Amedi A; et al. (August 2006). "Attentional modulation of emotional stimulus processing: an fMRI study using emotional expectancy". Human Brain Mapping 27 (8): 662–77.  
  34. ^ Fincham JM, Carter CS, van Veen V, Stenger VA, Anderson JR (March 2002). "Neural mechanisms of planning: a computational analysis using event-related fMRI". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99 (5): 3346–51.  
  35. ^ Xie S, Xiao J, Jiang X (June 2003). 正常老年人计算任务的脑功能磁共振成像研究 [The fMRI study of the calculation tasks in normal aged volunteers] (PDF). Journal of Peking University (in Chinese) 35 (3): 311–3.  
  36. ^ Rickard TC, Romero SG, Basso G, Wharton C, Flitman S, Grafman J (2000). "The calculating brain: an fMRI study". Neuropsychologia 38 (3): 325–35.  
  37. ^ Royet JP, Koenig O, Gregoire MC; et al. (January 1999). "Functional anatomy of perceptual and semantic processing for odors". Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 11 (1): 94–109.  
  38. ^ Azari NP, Nickel J, Wunderlich G; et al. (April 2001). "Neural correlates of religious experience". The European Journal of Neuroscience 13 (8): 1649–52.  

External links

  • Gusnard, Debra A.; Akbudak, Erbil; Shulman, Gordon L.; Raichle, Marcus E. (March 27, 2001). "Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Self-Referential Mental Activity: Relation to a Default Mode of Brain Function". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98 (7): 4259–64.  
  • For Neuroanatomy of this area see BrainInfo
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