Dog breed

Chihuahua mix and purebred Great Dane

Dog breeds are groups of closely related and visibly similar domestic dogs, which are all of the subspecies Canis lupus familiaris, having characteristic traits that are selected and maintained by humans, bred from a known foundation stock.[1] The term dog breed is also used to refer to natural breeds or landraces, which arose through time in response to a particular environment that included humans, with little or no selective breeding by humans.[2] Such breeds are undocumented, and are identified by their appearance and often by a style of working. Ancient dog breeds are some of the modern (documented) descendants of such natural breeds.


  • Description 1
  • Classification 2
  • History of dog breeds 3
  • Development of dog breeds 4
  • Genetics 5
  • Dog breed documentation 6
    • Stud books 6.1
    • Breed standards 6.2
  • Groups of dogs mistaken for breeds 7
  • List 8
  • Images 9
  • See also 10
  • References 11
  • Further reading 12
  • External links 13


Dog breeds are not scientifically defined biological classifications, but rather are groupings defined by clubs of hobbyists called breed clubs. A dog breed is represented by a sufficient number of individuals to stably transfer its specific characteristics over generations. Dogs of same breed have similar characteristics of appearance and behavior, primarily because they come from a select set of ancestors who had the same characteristics.[3] Dogs of a specific breed breed true, produce young that are very similar to their parents. An individual dog is identified as a member of a breed through proof of ancestry, using genetic analysis or written records of ancestry. Without such proof, identification of a specific breed is not reliable.[4] Such records, called stud books, may be maintained by individuals, clubs, or other organizations.


Three generations of "Westies" in a village in Fife, Scotland

In Belgian Shepherd Dog is separated into four distinct breeds by some clubs, but not in others. Further, some groups of dogs which clearly share a persistent set of characteristics and documented descent from a known foundation stock may still not be recognized by some clubs as breeds. For instance, the feist is a hunting dog raised in the Southern United States for hunting small game. Feists have a consistent set of characteristics that reliably differentiate them from other dog types and breeds. However, the United Kennel Club recognizes one breed of feist, the Treeing Feist, while the American Kennel Club does not recognize any feist breed.

A dog is said to be purebred if their parents were purebred and if the dog meets the standards of the breed. Purebred dog breeders of today "have inherited a breeding paradigm that is, at the very least, a bit anachronistic in light of modern genetic knowledge, and that first arose out of a pretty blatant misinterpretation of Darwin and an enthusiasm for social theories that have long been discredited as scientifically insupportable and morally questionable."[6] Morally questionable policies regarding purity of breed include obligatory surgical procedures to spay or neuter animals in numerous contexts. The American Kennel Club, for instance, allows mixed-breed dogs to be shown but requires these animals to be altered. It doesn't make such requirements for purebred dogs. California Assembly Act AB 1634 was a bill introduced in 2007 that would require all non-working dogs of mixed breed over the age of 6 months to be neutered or spayed.[7] The bill was morally controversial, leading the American Kennel Club to fight the bill.[8]

The clear genetic distinction between breeds of dog has made dogs of specific breeds good subjects for genetic and human medical research. "Using the dog as a discovery tool" in studying how cancer affects specific breeds may lead to identifying "susceptibility genes that have proved intractable in human families and populations."[9]

History of dog breeds

Initial dog selections centered on helpful behavior such as barking at unfamiliar creatures and people, guarding livestock, or hunting game. Some dog breeds (such as Saluki[10] or New Guinea Singing Dogs) have been bred for thousands of years. Some working dog breeds such as German Shepherd Dog or Labrador Retriever[11] were established in the last few hundred years. More recently, dogs have been selected for attractiveness and distinctive features, resulting in a vast variety of breeds. Similar dog breeds are classified by dog registries in dog breed groups.

Groups of individuals that have dogs of the same breed often unite into national

Development of dog breeds

For the history and development of the dog, see Origin of the domestic dog, Ancient dog breeds, and Dog type.

There is much speculation but little evidence about why canids came to live with or near humans, possibly as long as 100,000 years ago.[13] With the beginnings of agriculture around 12,000 years ago, humans began making use of dogs in various ways, resulting in physical differences between dogs and their wolf ancestors.[14] In earlier times, little was written about dogs, although there were known dog types or landrace dogs, which developed over time with minimal human intervention, to fit in with the environment (including human culture) in which the dogs lived or live.[15][16] Dog breeds in the modern sense date only to the accurate documenting of pedigrees with the establishment of the English Kennel Club in 1873, in imitation of other stud book registries for cattle and horses.[17]

Many dog breeds today have names of original landrace types, such as the Border Collie. Other landrace types, such as retrievers, have been made more uniform in appearance through selective breeding, and developed into a variety of distinctive breeds.[18] Varieties of purebred dogs kept for working purposes can vary in appearance from purebred dogs of the same breed kept as showdogs and pets.[19]

New dog breeds are being continually created. They are either accidentally or purposely crossbred from existing breeds, developed for a specific style of work, or created just for marketing purposes. Recently discovered semi-feral and landrace types such as the New Guinea Singing Dog have been documented and registered as breeds for purposes of preservation. The Canadian department of agriculture has strict standards for the documenting of what it calls "emerging breeds".[20] Many registries which require minimal documentation are available for registering new and existing breeds of dog.[21] In general, a dog can only be guaranteed to be of a specific breed if it is documented in the stud book of a major dog registry or breed registry.[22]


Dog breeds can now be analyzed through genetics. Genetic markers (microsatellite markers and single-nucleotide polymorphisms) have been analyzed and a representative sample of 85 breeds were placed into four clusters, each cluster having shared ancestors. Cluster 1 is thought to be the oldest, including African and Asian dogs. Cluster 2 is mastiff type dogs; cluster 3 is herding dogs, and cluster 4 modern hunting type dogs (mostly developed in Europe in the 1800s.)[23]

  • Note: Relationships uncovered through genetics may not match "official" breed histories. The following breed lists are based on genetic research, not traditional beliefs about dog breeds.
  • Cluster 3 (Herding):[23] Welsh Corgi.

Dog breed documentation

Stud books

Dog breeds are documented in lists of antecedents called a stud book.[25]

Dog breeds that have been documented may be accepted into one or more of the major registries (kennel clubs) of dog breeds, including the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (covering 84 countries), The Kennel Club (UK), the Canadian Kennel Club, the American Kennel Club, the United Kennel Clubs International, the Australian National Kennel Council and the New Zealand Kennel Club, and other national registries. The registry places the breed into the appropriate category, called a group. Some Groups may be further subdivided by some registries. When the breed is fully accepted, the stud book is closed and only dogs bred from dogs in the stud book will be accepted for registration.[26] These dogs are referred to as purebred.

Dog breed clubs, especially of dogs bred for a particular kind of work, may maintain an open stud book and so may not be included in major registries. The dogs are still considered a breed. An example of this would be the Jack Russell Terrier Club of America.

Some dog breeds fit the definition of breed, especially breeds that develop naturally on islands or in isolated areas, but are few in number or have not been sufficiently documented to be registered with one of the major registries. An example of this would be the Kintamani Dog and other rare or independent breeds.

Breeds of dogs can be deliberately created in a relatively short period of time. When they breed true and have been sufficiently documented, they can be accepted by major registries. An example of this is the Cesky Terrier.[27]

Breed standards

Each dog breed has a written breed standard, a list of attributes that standardises the appearance of the breed, written by the breed's founder or breed club. Dog are judged in Conformation dog shows on the basis of how closely the individual dog conforms to the breed standard. As the breed standard only covers external aspects of the dog's appearance, breeding working dogs for show competition may cause appearance to be emphasised to the detriment of working ability.

Groups of dogs mistaken for breeds

Groups of dogs that may be mistaken for breeds include working dogs that are categorized by working style rather than appearance, even though they may be of various ancestry and may not breed true. The difference between a named group of working dogs and a breed of dogs can be unclear. Examples would be the huntaway and other livestock dogs of New Zealand, the feist dogs of the southern United States, and the Patagonian sheepdogs of Argentina, which are collies mixed with other working dogs.[28]

Landrace dogs are another grouping that often have been named, but they're not always considered breeds.[29] "Landrace" is a term used for early types domesticated animals, including dogs, where isolated populations of dogs are selected according to human goals; developing over time rather than through modern breeding techniques.[30] An example of a landrace dog would be the dog described as 'Basset' as early as 1585.[31] The landrace Basset was developed into the modern breeds of Dachshund and Basset Hound, as well as modern day terrier breeds.[32]

Another group of dogs that may be mistaken for breeds are the progeny of intentional crossbreedings of two purebred dogs. The popularity of these crosses are often the result of fads. Examples include the AMBOR dog, the name does not signify that dogs so registered are a breed. Dogs must be spayed or neutered to be registered.[34]

Individual dogs or small groups of dogs may use an existing breed name or be given an invented breed name and listed with little or no documentation for a fee with "registry" companies with minimal verification requirements. The dogs are then bred and marketed as a "registered" breed, sometimes as a "rare" or new breed of dogs.[35]


Name/Name FCI FCI No. English Name Picture
Affenpinscher 186 Affenpinscher
Afghan Hound 228 Afghan Hound
Aidi 247 Aidi
Airedale Terrier 7 Airedale Terrier
Akita Inu 255 Akita Inu
Alaskan Husky Alaskan Husky
Alaskan Klee Kai Alaskan Klee Kai
Alaskan Malamute 243 Alaskan Malamute
Alpine Dachsbracke 254 Alpine Dachsbracke
Altdeutscher Hütehund Old German Cattledog
American Akita 344 American Akita
American Bulldog American Bulldog
American Cocker Spaniel 167 American Cocker Spaniel
American Eskimo Dog American Eskimo Dog
American Foxhound 303 American Foxhound
American Hairless Terrier American Hairless Terrier
American Pit Bull Terrier American Pit Bull Terrier
American Staffordshire Terrier 286 American Staffordshire Terrier
American Toy Terrier American Toy Terrier
American Water Spaniel 301 American Water Spaniel
Anatolian Greyhound Anatolian Greyhound
Anglo-Français de Petite Vénerie 325 Medium-sized Anglo-French Hound
Appenzeller Sennenhund 46 Appenzeller Sennenhund
Ariégeois 20 Ariege Hound
Australian Cattle Dog 287 Australian Cattle Dog
Australian Kelpie 293 Australian Kelpie
Australian Shepherd 342 Australian Shepherd
Australian Silky Terrier 236 Australian Silky Terrier
Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog 251 Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog
Australian terrier 8 Australian terrier
Azawakh 307 Azawakh
Bangkaew Dog Bangkaew Dog
Barbet 105 Barbet
Bardino, Perro de Ganado Majorero Bardino
Basenji 43 Basenji
Basset Artésien Normand 34 Norman Artesian Basset
Basset Bleu de Gascogne 35 Blue Gascony Basset
Basset Fauve de Bretagne 36 Fawn Brittany Basset
Basset Hound 163 Basset Hound
Bayerischer Gebirgsschweißhund 217 Bavarian Mountain Hound
Beagle 161 Beagle
Bearded Collie 271 Bearded Collie
Beauceron 44 Beauceron
Bedlington Terrier 9 Bedlington Terrier
Belgian Griffon (Griffons belges) 80, 81, 82 Brussels Griffon
Bergamasco 194 Bergamasco
Berger Blanc Suisse, (Weißer Schweizer Schäferhund) 347 White Swiss Shepherd
Berger Picard 176 Picardy Shepherd
Berger des Pyrénées 138 and 141 Pyrenean Shepherd
Berner Sennenhund,
Bouvier bernois, Bernenski pies pasterski
45 Bernese Mountain Dog
Bichon Frisé, Bichon à poil frisé 215 Bichon Frisé
Bichon Havanais 250 Havanese
Billy 25 Billy
Black and Tan Coonhound 300 Black and Tan Coonhound
Tchiorny Terrier 327 Black Russian Terrier
Blue Picardy Spaniel 106 Blue Picardy Spaniel
Bluetick Coonhound Bluetick Coonhound
Boerboel Boerboel
Bohemian Spotted Dog Bohemian Spotted Dog
Bichon bolonais 196 Bolognese
Bolonka franzuska Bolonka franzuska
Bolonka Zwetna
Border Collie 297 Border Collie
Border Terrier 10 Border Terrier
Borzoi 193 Borzoi
Bosanski Ostrodlaki Gonic Barak 155 Bosnian Coarse-Haired Hound
Boston Terrier 140 Boston Terrier
Bouvier des Flandres 191 Bouvier des Flandres
Bouledogue Français 101 French Bulldog
Boykin Spaniel Boykin Spaniel
Braque francais type Pyrenees 134 French Pointing Dog - Pyrenean type
Bracco Italiano 202 Bracco Italiano
Brandlbracke 63 Austrian Black and Tan Hound
Braque d' Auvergne 180 Auvergne Pointing Dog
Braque du Bourbonnais 179 Bourbonnais Pointing Dog
Braque Saint-Germain 177 Braque Saint-Germain
Briard, Berger de Brie 113 Briard
Briquet Griffon Vendeen 19 Medium Vendeen Griffon
Broholmer 315 Broholmer
Bulldog 149 Bulldog
Bull Terrier 11 Bull Terrier
Bullmastiff 157 Bullmastiff
Ca de Bou fr: dogue de Majorque 249 Majorca Mastiff
Ca de Bestiar 321 Majorca Shepherd Dog
Cairn Terrier 4 Cairn Terrier
Can de Palleiro Galician Palleiro Dog, Palleiro Shepherd Dog, Galician Cattledog, Palleiro
Canaan Dog 273 Canaan Dog
Canadian Inuit Dog Canadian Inuit Dog, Canadian Eskimo Dog
Cane Corso Italiano 343 Cane Corso, Italian Corso Dog
Cane da pastore Maremmano-Abbruzzese 201 Maremma and Abruzzes Sheepdog
Cane pecoraio siciliano Sicilian Sheepdog
Caniche, Pudel 172 Poodle
Cão de Água Português 37 Portuguese Water Dog
Cão Fila de São Miguel 340 Azores Cattle Dog
Cao de Serra de Aires 93 Portuguese Sheepdog
Caravan hound Caravan Hound
Carolina Dog Carolina Dog
Catahoula Leopard Dog Catahoula Leopard Dog
Catahoula Bulldog Catahoula Bulldog
Caucasian Ovcharka 328 Caucasian Ovcharka, Caucasian Mountain Dog
Cavalier King Charles Spaniel 136 Cavalier King Charles Spaniel
Central Asian Shepherd Dog 335 Central Asia Shepherd Dog
Český fousek 245 Bohemian wire-haired Pointing Griffon
Český Teriér 246 Czech Terrier
Cierny Sery
Československý vlčiak, Tschechoslowakischer Wolfhund 332 Czechoslovakian Wolfdog
Chart Polski 333 Polish Greyhound, Polish Sighthound
Chesapeake Bay Retriever 263 Chesapeake Bay Retriever
Chien de Montagne des Pyrénées, Patou 137 Pyrenean Mountain Dog
Chien de Berger Belge, Groenendael 15 Belgian Shepherd Groenendael
Chien de Berger Belge, Laekenois 15 Belgian Shepherd Laekenois
Chien de Berger, Malinois 15 Belgian Shepherd Malinois
Chien de Berger Belge, Tervuren 15 Belgian Shepherd Tervuren
Cão da serra da Estrela 173 Estrela Mountain Dog
Cao de castro laboreiro 170 Portuguese Cattle Dog
Chien de Saint-Hubert 84 Bloodhound
Chien d'Artois 28 Artois Hound
Chihuahua 218 Chihuahua
Chinese Crested Dog 288 Chinese Crested Dog
Chinook Chinook
Chodský pes Bohemian Shepherd
Chow Chow 205 Chow Chow
Ciobanesc Românesc Carpatin 350 Romanian Carpathian Shepherd Dog
Ciobanesc Romanesc de Bucovina 357 Romanian de Bucovina Shepherd Dog
Ciobanesc Romanesc Mioritic 349 Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog
Cirneco dell'Etna 199 Cirneco dell'Etna
Clumber Spaniel 109 Clumber Spaniel
Çoban Köpeği 331 Anatolian Shepherd Dog
Continental Toy Spaniel Papillon 77 Papillon
Coton de Tulear 283 Coton de Tulear
Crete Hound Cretan Hound
Cursinu Cursinu
Curly Coated Retriever 110 Curly Coated Retriever
Dachshund, Dackel, Teckel 148 Dachshund
Dalmatiner Dalmatinac 153 Dalmatian
Dandie Dinmont Terrier 168 Dandie Dinmont Terrier
Dansk-Svensk Gaardshund 356 Danish/Swedish Farm Dog
Deerhound 164 Deerhound
Deutsche Bracke 299 German Hound
Deutscher Boxer 144 Boxer
Deutsche Dogge 235 Great Dane
Deutsch-Langhaar 117 German Longhaired Pointer
Deutsch Stichelhaar 232 German Rough-haired Pointing Dog
Deutscher Pinscher fr:Pinscher allemand 184 German Pinscher
Deutscher Spitz 97 German Spitz
Deutscher Wachtel 104 German Spaniel
Deutsch Kurzhaar 119 German Shorthaired Pointer
Deutscher Schäferhund 166 German Shepherd Dog
Deutsch Drahthaar 98 German Wirehaired Pointer
Do-Khyi 230 Tibetan Mastiff
Dobermann 143 Doberman Pinscher
Dogo Argentino 292 Argentine Dogo
Dogo Canario 346 Canary Dog
Dogue de Bordeaux 116 Dogue de Bordeaux, French Mastiff
Drentse Patrijshond 224 Dutch Partridge Dog
Drever 130 Drever
Dunker 203 Norwegian Hound
Elo Elo
English cocker spaniel 5 English Cocker Spaniel
English Coonhound English Coonhound
English Foxhound 159 English Foxhound
English-Springer-Spaniel 125 English Springer Spaniel
English Pointer 1 Pointer
English Setter Setter anglais 2 English Setter
English Toy Terrier 13 English Toy Terrier, King Charles Spaniel
Entlebucher Sennenhund 47 Entelbuch Mountain Dog
Epagneul Breton 95 Brittany
Epagneul Français 175 French Spaniel
Epagneul Picard 108 Picardy Spaniel
Epagneul de Pont-Audemer 114 Pont Audemer Spaniel
Erdélyi Kopó 241 Transylvanian Hound
Eurasier 291 Eurasier
Fila Brasileiro 225 Brazilian Mastiff
Flat Coated Retriever 121 Flat-Coated Retriever
Fox Terrier 12 and 169 Fox Terrier
Galgo español fr:lévrier espagnol 285 Spanish Greyhound
Gammel Dansk Hønsehund 281 Old Danish Pointer
Glen of Imaal Terrier 302 Glen of Imaal Terrier
Golden Retriever 111 Golden Retriever
Gończy Polski 354 Polish Hunting Dog, Polish Scenthound
Gordon Setter fr:Setter gordon 6 Gordon Setter
Gos-d'Atura-Catala 87 Catalan Sheepdog
Grand anglo-français tricolore 322 Great Anglo-French Tricolour Hound
Grand anglo-français blanc et orange 324 Great Anglo-French White and Orange Hound
Grand anglo-français blanc et noir 323 Great Anglo-French White and Black Hound
Grand Basset Griffon Vendéen 33 Large Vendeen Griffon Basset
Grand Griffon Vendeen 282
Grand Bleu de Gascogne 22 Great Gascony Hound, Great Gascony Blue
Grønlandshund 274 Greenland Dog
Greyhound 158 Greyhound
Griffon Fauve de Bretagne 66 Fawn Brittany Griffon
Griffon bleu de Gascogne 32 Blue Gascony Griffon
Griffon d'arrêt à poil dur Korthals 107 Wirehaired Pointing Griffon, Korthals Griffon
Griffon Nivernais 17 Griffon Nivernais
Grosser Schweizer Sennenhund fr:Grand bouvier Suisse 58 Greater Swiss Mountain Dog
Haldenstovare 267 Halden Hound
Hamiltonstövare 132 Hamilton Hound
Hannoverscher Schweisshund 213 Hanover Hound
Harrier 295 Harrier
Hellinikos Ichnilatis 214 Hellenic Hound
Hokkaido (dog) 261 Hokkaido inu
Hollandse Herdershond 223 Dutch Shepherd Dog
Hollandse Smoushond 308 Dutch Smoushond
Hovawart 190 Hovawart
Hrvatski ovčar 277 Croatian Sheepdog
Ioujnorousskaîa Ovtcharka 326 South Russian Ovcharka
Huntaway Huntaway
Indian Spitz 289
Irish Red and White Setter 330 Irish Red and White Setter
Irish Setter 120 Irish Setter
Irish Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier 40 Soft-Coated Wheaten Terrier
Irish Terrier 139 Irish Terrier
Irish Water Spaniel 124 Irish Water Spaniel
Irish Wolfhound 160 Irish Wolfhound
Islenskur Fjárhundur fr:Chien de berger islandais 289 Icelandic Sheepdog
Istarski Kratkodlaki Gonič 151 Istrian short-haired Hound
Istarski Oštrodlaki Gonič 152 Istrian coarse-haired Hound
Jack Russell Terrier 345 Jack Russell Terrier
Jagdterrier 103 German Hunting Terrier
Jämthund 42 Swedish Elkhound
Japanese Chin 206 Japanese Chin, Japanese Spaniel
Kai (dog) 317 Kai
Karakatschan Karakatschan
Karjalankarhukoira 48 Karelian bear dog
Karelo-Finnish Laika, Finlandskaja, Karelskaja → Suomenpystykorva (Finnish Spitz) 49 Karelo-Finnish Laika
Kraški ovčar 278 Karst Shepherd
Kerry Blue Terrier 3 Kerry Blue Terrier
Kintamani Kintamani
King Charles Spaniel 128 King Charles Spaniel
Kishu Inu 318 Kishu
Komondor 53 Komondor
Kooikerhondje 314 Kooikerhondje
Korean Jindo 334 Korean Jindo
Kritikos Lagonikos, Kretahund Kretahound
Kromfohrlander 192 Kromfohrlander
Kuvasz 54 Kuvasz
Kyi Leo
Labradoodle Labradoodle
Labrador Retriever 122 Labrador Retriever
Lagotto Romagnolo 298 Lagotto Romagnolo
Lakeland Terrier 70 Lakeland Terrier
Lancashire Heeler Lancashire Heeler
Landseer 226 Landseer
Lapinporokoira 284 Lapinporokoira, Lapponian Herder
Leonberger 145 Leonberger
Lhasa Apso 227 Lhasa Apso
Lucas Terrier Lucas Terrier
Lundehund 265 Norwegian Lundehund
Lupo Italiano
Lurcher Lurcher
Maltese, bichon maltais 65 Maltese
Magyar Agar 240 Hungarian Greyhound
Magyar Vizsla 57, 239 Hungarian Vizsla
Manchester Terrier 71 Manchester Terrier
Markiesje Dutch Tulip Dog
Mastiff 264 Mastiff
Mastín del Pirineo 92 Pyrenean Mastiff
Mastín español fr:mâtin espagnol 91 Spanish Mastiff
Middleasian greyhound - Tazi Middleasian greyhound - Tazi
Miniature Australian Shepherd Miniature Australian Shepherd
Miniature Pinscher 185 Miniature Pinscher
Miniature Shar Pei Miniature Shar Pei
Moscow Watchdog Moscow Watchdog
Large Münsterländer/Small Münsterländer 102 and 118 Munsterlander
Mudi 238 Mudi
Neapolitan Mastiff 197 Neapolitan Mastiff
Newfoundland 50 Newfoundland
Nihon Supittsu Japanischer/Japanese Spitz 262 Japanese Spitz
Norrbottenspets 276 Nordic Spitz
Norsk Buhund 237 Norwegian Buhund
Norsk Elghund 242 and 268 Norwegian Elkhound
Norfolkterrier 272 Norfolk Terrier
Norwichterrier 72 Norwich Terrier
Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever 312 Nova Scotia Duck-Tolling Retriever
Ogar Polski 52 Polish Hound
Olde English Bulldogge Olde English Bulldogge
Old English Sheepdog, Bobtail 16 Old English Sheepdog
Österreichischer Pinscher 64 Austrian Pinscher
Otterhound 294 Otterhound
Parson Russell Terrier 339 Parson Russell Terrier
Pastor Garafiano Garafiano Shepherd
Patterdale terrier Patterdale terrier
Piccolo Levriero Italiano 200 Italian Greyhound
Pekingese 207 Pekingese
Perro de Agua Español 336 Spanish Water Dog
Perro fino Colombiano Colombian Fino
Cimarrón Uruguayo 353 Cimarron
Perro Pastor Vasco Basque Shepherd Dog
Perro sin pelo del Perú 310 Peruvian Hairless Dog
Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen 67 Petit Basset Griffon Vendeen
Petit bleu de Gascogne 31 Small Blue Gascony Hound
Petit chien lion 233 Löwchen
Pharaoh Hound Kelb Tal Fenek 248 Pharaoh Hound
Plott Hound Plott Hound
Plummer Terrier Plummer Terrier
Podenco andaluz Andalusian Hound
Podenco Canario 329 Canarian Warren Hound
Podenco Ibicenco Ibizan Podenco 89 Ibizan Hound
Podengo Português Portuguese Podengo 94 Portuguese Podengo
Poitevin 24 Poitevin
Polski Owczarek Nizinny, PON, Nizinny 251 Polish Lowland Sheepdog
Polski Owczarek Podhalanski 252 Tatra Shepherd Dog
Porcelaine 30 Porcelaine
Perdigueiro Português 187 Portuguese Pointer
Pražský krysařík Prague Ratter
Pudelpointer 216 Pudelpointer
Pug fr:carlin 253 Pug
Puli 55 Puli
Pumi 56 Pumi
Rampur Hound Rampur Hound
Rat Terrier Rat Terrier
Rafeiro do Alentejo 96 Alentejo Mastiff
Rajapalayam (dog) Rajapalayam Hound
Ratonero Andaluz Andalusian Mouse-Hunting Dog
Redbone Coonhound Redbone Coonhound
Rhodesian Ridgeback fr:Chien de Rhodésie à crête dorsale 146 Rhodesian Ridgeback
Rottweiler 147 Rottweiler
Rough coated collie 156 Rough Collie
Russian Spaniel Russian Spaniel
Russo-European Laika 304 Russo-European Laika
Russkiy Toy 352 Russian Toy Terrier
Saarlooswolfhond 311 Saarlooswolfhond
Samoiedskaïa Sabaka 212 Samoyed
Saluki 269 Saluki
Sarplaninac 41 Sarplaninac
Schapendoes 313 Dutch Schapendoes
Schiller Hound 131 Schiller Hound
Schipperke 83 Schipperke
Sealyham Terrier 74 Sealyham Terrier
Shetland Sheepdog 88 Shetland Sheepdog
Scottish Terrier 73 Scottish Terrier
Schnauzer 181, 182 and 183 Schnauzer
Segugio italiano 198, 337 Italian Hound
Shar-Pei 309 Shar Pei, Chinese Shar-Pei
Shiba Inu 257 Shiba Inu
Shih-Poo Shih-Poo
Shih-Tzu 208 Shih Tzu
Shikoku 319 Shikoku
Shiloh shepherd Shiloh Shepherd
Siberian Husky 270 Siberian Husky
Silken Windhound Silken Windhound
Skye Terrier 75 Skye Terrier
Slovenský kopov 244 Slovakian Hound
Slovenský hrubosrstý stavač 320 Slovakian Wire-haired Pointing Dog
Slovensky Cuvac 142 Slovakian Chuvach
Spinone Italiano 165 Spinone Italiano
Sloughi 188 Sloughi
Smaland-Stövare 129 Smalands Hound
Smooth coated collie 296 Smooth Collie
Srpski Gonic 150 Serbian Hound
Srpski Trobojni Gonic 229 Serbian Tricolour Hound
Stabyhoun 222 Stabyhoun
Staffordshire Bull Terrier 76 Staffordshire Bull Terrier
St. Bernhardshund, Bernhadiner 61 St. Bernard dog
Steirische Rauhhaarbracke 62 Styrian coarse-haired Hound
Suomenajokoira 51 Finnish Hound
Suomenlapinkoira 189 Finnish Lapphund
Suomenpystykorva 49 Finnish Spitz
Sussex Spaniel 127 Sussex Spaniel
Swedish Lapphund 135 Swedish Lapphund
Schweizerischer Niederlaufhund,
Petit chien courant suisse
60 Small Swiss Hound
Schweizer Laufhund 59 Swiss Hound
Taigan Taigan
Taiwan Dog, Formosan Dog 348 Taiwan Dog
Tamaskan Tamaskan Dog
Terrier Brasileiro 341 Brazilian Terrier
Tesem Tesem
Tibetan Spaniel 231 Tibetan Spaniel
Tornjak 355 Bosnian -Herzegovinian -Croatian Shepherd Dog
Tosa inu 260 Tosa Inu, Tosa
Toy Manchester Terrier Toy Manchester Terrier
Treeing Walker Coonhound Treeing Walker Coonhound
Thai Ridgeback 338 Thai Ridgeback
Tibetan terrier Dhoki Apso 209 Tibetan Terrier
Tiroler Bracke 68 Tyrolean Hound
Västgötaspets 14 Swedish Vallhund
Volpino 195 Volpino Italiano
Vostotchno-Sibirskaïa Laïka 305 East Siberian Laika
Waeller Waeller
Weimaraner 99 Weimaraner
Welsh Corgi Cardigan 38 Welsh Corgi (Cardigan)
Welsh Corgi Pembroke 39 Welsh Corgi (Pembroke)
Welsh Springer Spaniel 126 Welsh Springer Spaniel
Welsh Terrier 78 Welsh Terrier
West Highland White Terrier 85 West Highland White Terrier
Westfalenterrier Westfal Terrier
Westphälische Dachsbracke 100 Westphalian Dachsbracke
Wetterhond 221 Wetterhond
Whippet 162 Whippet
White English Bulldog White English Bulldog
Xoloitzcuintli 234 Xoloitzcuintle, Mexican Hairless Dog
Yakutian Laika Yakutian Laika
Yorkshire terrier 86 Yorkshire terrier
Zapadno-Sibirskaïa Laïka 306 West Siberian Laika


See also


  1. ^ Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. The Merriam-Webster Editorial Staff PA. Springfield, Massachusetts, USA: G&C Merriam Company. 1967. p. 274. A breed is a group of domestic animals related through common ancestors and visibly similar in most characteristics, having been differentiated from others by human influence; a distinctive group of domesticated animals differentiated from the wild type under the influence of man, the sum of the progeny of a known and designated foundation stock without admixture of other blood. 
  2. ^ Coppinger, Raymond & Lorna Coppinger. Dogs. Scribner 2001, ISBN 0-684-85530-5, Chapter 3, "Natural Breeds", p. 85. "Natural breeds can arise locally with no human interaction"
  3. ^ Donna L. Morden; Seranne, Ann; Wendell J. Sammet; Gasow, Julia (2004). The joy of breeding your own show dog. New York, N.Y: Howell Book House.  
  4. ^ Lynn Marmer (1984). "The New Breed Of Municipal Dog Control Laws:Are They Constitutional?". first published in the University of Cincinnati Law Review. Archived from the original on 2000-09-26. Retrieved 13 December 2013. The court found it was impossible to identify the breed of an unregistered dog. 
  5. ^ Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary: "Breed is usually applied to domestic animals; species or variety to wild animals and to plants; and race to men."
  6. ^ Budiansky", Stephen (2000). The Truth About Dogs; an Inquiry into the Ancestry, Social Conventions, Mental Habits, and Moral Fiber of Canis familiaris. New York, U.S.A.: Viking Penguin. p. 35.  
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ "Canine Genetics Offers New Mechanisms for the Study of Human Cancer", by Edouard Cadieu and Elaine A. Ostrander, Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 16, 2181–2183, November 1, 2007. Published Online First November 2, 2007; doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-2667
  10. ^ Allan, Ken; Allan, Diana (1999). THE COMPLETE SALUKI (Book of the Breed). Ringpress Books.  
  11. ^ Heather Wiles-Fone; H. Wiles-Fone (2003). The ultimate Labrador retriever. New York, N.Y: Howell Book House.  
  12. ^ The Complete dog book: the photograph, history, and official standard of every breed admitted to AKC registration, and the selection, training, breeding, care, and feeding of pure-bred dogs. New York, N.Y: Howell Book House. 1992.  
  13. ^ Carles Vilà (et al.) of the University of California, California, USA, has studied archaeological evidence (fossil bones) indicating that canids could have been living with humans 100,000 years ago.Carles Vilà; Peter Savolainen; Jesús E. Maldonado; Isabel R. Amorim; John E. Rice; Rodney L. Honeycutt; Keith A. Crandall; Joakim Lundeberg; Robert K. Wayne (1997). "Multiple and Ancient Origins of the Domestic Dog". Science Vol. 276. no. 5319. pp. 1687–1689.  
  14. ^ Christine Mlot (June 28, 1997). "Stalking the Ancient Dog". Science News Online. Archived from the original on 2004-04-23. Retrieved 13 December 2013. When we became an agricultural society, what we needed dogs for changed enormously, and a further and irrevocable division [between dogs and wolves] occurred at that point. 
  15. ^ 1 Catherine Marley. """What is a "Landrace. The Lhasa Apso Information Source. Archived from the original on 2008-04-12. Retrieved 13 December 2013. These animals developed their "type" from adaptation to a mix of function and the demands of the particular physical environment. 
  16. ^ Johan Gallant; Joseph Sithole (1999-01-01). "Description of the AFRICANIS landrace". Breeders in Africa website. Archived from the original on 1999-08-24. Retrieved 13 December 2013. The people to whom these dogs traditionally belong do not tend to make body contact with them. However their settlements are seldom deserted from humans, other dogs and livestock, ensuring adequate socialization and environmental adaptation. 
  17. ^  
  18. ^ D. Phillip Sponenberg, DVM. "Livestock Guard Dogs: What is a Breed, and Why Does it Matter?" (essay). Kangal Dogs website. Archived from the original on 2004-10-20. Retrieved 13 December 2013. The level of uniformity varies from breed to breed as the breeders' associations decide what to include and what to exclude. 
  19. ^ Diane Jessup. Different" breeds with the same name""". Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  20. ^ "Animal Pedigree Act 1985". Department of Justice, Canada. Retrieved 9 April 2008. 
  21. ^ Diane Blackman. "Getting a dog tips-Red Flags, Breeders you probably want to avoid" (website). Dog Play. Retrieved 13 December 2013. Be especially cautious of registries that complain of some imagined difficulty or expense in registering dogs through AKC. 
  22. ^ "Purebred dog registrations". Canadian Federation of Humane Societies. Retrieved 13 December 2013. Many puppy mills and backyard breeders are registering their dogs with invalid, Internet based registries. 
  23. ^ a b c d e Ostrander, Elaine A. (September–October 2007). "Genetics and the Shape of Dogs; Studying the new sequence of the canine genome shows how tiny genetic changes can create enormous variation within a single species". American Scientist (online). pp. also see chart page 4. Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  24. ^ The Akita breed was left out of the American Scientist article from the reference cited within it without explanation. With Akita, the number of breeds is 85, matching the article's count. Parker, Heidi G.; et al. (21 May 2004). "Genetic Structure of the Purebred Domestic Dog" (PDF).  
  25. ^ American Kennel Club. "AKC Glossary". Retrieved 13 December 2013. A listing of dogs that have sired or produced a litter that has been registered with the AKC. With this information, a person can use Stud Book volumes to trace a dog's lineage and to produce pedigrees. 
  26. ^ American Kennel Club. "AKC Glossary". Retrieved 13 December 2013. A dog whose sire and dam belong to the same breed and who are themselves of unmixed descent since recognition of the breed. 
  27. ^ KLUB CHOVATELÙ ÈESKÝCH TERIÉRÙ (KCHCT). "History of Cesky Terrier" (in Czech, English). Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  28. ^ Rorem, Linda. "Herding Dog Breeds - Stockdog breeds". Herding on the Web. Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  29. ^ "How to find a farm collie or shepherd". 2001. Archived from the original on 2001-04-11. Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  30. ^ Don Bixby (2003). "Types of Breeds". Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  31. ^ Don Bixby (2003). "History of the Basset Hound". Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  32. ^ Marvin, John T. (1982). "2". The New Complete Scottish terrier (Second ed.). New York, New York: Howell Book House Inc. p. 18.  
  33. ^ Bijal P. Trivedi (February 9, 2004). "What's a Labradoodle—Designer Dog or Just Another Mutt?". National Geographic Channel. Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  34. ^ United Kennel Club. "UKC Registration, Limited Privilege". Archived from the original on 2006-02-05. Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  35. ^ Wray, Michelle (2000). "Puppy Mills : What They Are and What You Can Do About Them". DORG Magazine. Retrieved 13 December 2013. The AKC has now started requiring DNA testing for breeding dogs and puppies, which increases the costs to the miller dramatically, and vastly increases the chances of them getting caught for their dirty dealings and losing AKC privileges. Does this deter the millers? Not really. They just turn to different registries, like the Continental Kennel Club (CKC), America’s Pet Registry (APR), and others. Purebred papers from these sources are not worth the paper they’re printed on. Millers don’t even have to prove they own the dogs they bred, or that they are the breed they claim. These registries will even register mixed breeds 

Further reading

  • Alderton, David (September 2008). Encyclopedia of Dogs (Hardcover). Bath: Parragon Inc. p. 384.  
  • Coile, D. Caroline (April 1, 2005). Encyclopedia of Dog Breeds: Profiles of More than 150 Breeds (2nd ed.). Barron's Educational Series, Incorporated. p. 368.  
  • De Prisco, Andrew; Johnson, James B. (1993). Canine Lexicon. T. F. H. Publications. p. 886.  [1]
  • De Vito, Dominique (September 1, 2005). World Atlas of Dog Breeds (Print) (6th ed.). Neptune City, NJ Lanham, MD: TFH Publications, Inc. Distributed in the U.S. to the Bookstore and library trade by National Book Network. p. 960.  
  • DK Publishing (July 15, 2013). The Dog Encyclopedia (Hardcover) (1st ed.). DK Adult. p. 360.  
  • Wilcox, Bonnie; Walkowicz, Chris (March 1995). Atlas of Dog Breeds of the World (Print) (5th ed.). Neptune City, NJ Lanham, MD: TFH Publications, Inc. Distributed in the U.S. to the Bookstore and library trade by National Book Network. p. 912.  

External links

  • Fédération Cynologique Internationale breeds nomenclature, lists 339 dog breeds in 78 groups
  • Dog breed at DMOZ
  • Dog Breed Characteristics will give you an historical overview of dog breeds.
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