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Earth Summit

The Earth Summit was a UN event

The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio Summit, Rio Conference, and Earth Summit (Portuguese: ECO92), was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992.

In 2012, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development was also held in Rio, and is also commonly called Rio+20 or Rio Earth Summit 2012. It was held from 13 to 22 June.

Contents

  • Overview 1
    • Results 1.1
  • See also 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4

Overview

172 governments participated, with 116 sending their heads of state or government.[1] Some 2,400 representatives of Consultative Status.

The issues addressed included:

  • systematic scrutiny of patterns of production — particularly the production of toxic components, such as lead in gasoline, or poisonous waste including radioactive chemicals
  • alternative sources of energy to replace the use of fossil fuels which delegates linked to global climate change
  • new reliance on public transportation systems in order to reduce vehicle emissions, congestion in cities and the health problems caused by polluted air and smoke
  • the growing usage and limited supply of water

An important achievement of the summit was an agreement on the Climate Change Convention which in turn led to the Kyoto Protocol. Another agreement was to "not to carry out any activities on the lands of indigenous peoples that would cause environmental degradation or that would be culturally inappropriate".

The Convention on Biological Diversity was opened for signature at the Earth Summit, and made a start towards redefinition of measures that did not inherently encourage destruction of natural ecoregions and so-called uneconomic growth.

Twelve cities were also honoured by the Local Government Honours Award for innovative local environmental programs. These included Sudbury in Canada for its ambitious program to rehabilitate environmental damage from the local mining industry, Austin in the United States for its green building strategy, and Kitakyūshū in Japan for incorporating an international education and training component into its municipal pollution control program.

Results

The Earth Summit resulted in the following documents:

Moreover, important legally binding agreements (Rio Convention) were opened for signature:

Critics, point out that many of the agreements made in Rio have not been realized regarding such fundamental issues as fighting poverty and cleaning up the environment.

Green Cross International was founded to build upon the work of the Summit.

See also

References

  1. ^ Taib, Fauziah (1997). Malaysia and UNCED. London: Kluwer Law International. p. 1.  
  2. ^ United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. "Rio Declaration on Environment and Development". Habitat.igc.org. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
  3. ^ United Nations Agenda 21 Archived May 10, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. "Agenda 21: Table of Contents. Earth Summit, 1992". Habitat.igc.org. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
  5. ^ "CBD Home". Cbd.int. Retrieved 2014-08-04. 

External links

  • Documents from the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (also known as UNCED or the Earth Summit) Archived January 19, 2012 at the Wayback Machine held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1992
  • video: George Hunt reviews UNCED 1992
  • video: Severn Suzuki, 13 years old, speaks for Environmental Children Organization UNCED 1992
  • Address at Rio Earth Summit, Tenzin Gyatso Dalai Lama
  • Agenda 21 at the Center for a World in Balance
  • A critical New Internationalist keynote about the 1992 Rio Earth Summit
  • Rio Summit- news, reports, documents, opinions...
  • Rio+20 on India Environment Portal


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