World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Hnojník

Hnojník
Gnojnik
Village

Château in Hnojník

Coat of arms
Hnojník
Location in the Czech Republic

Coordinates: 49°40′52″N 18°32′21″E / 49.68111°N 18.53917°E / 49.68111; 18.53917

Country Czech Republic
Region Moravian-Silesian
District Frýdek-Místek
First mentioned 1305
Government
 • Mayor Miroslav Molin
Area
 • Total
Elevation 365 m (1,198 ft)
Population (2006)
 • Total 1,487
 • Density 230/km2 (600/sq mi)
Postal code 739 53
Website http://www.hnojnik.cz/

History

The village lies in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia and was first mentioned in a written document in 1305 as Gnoynik.[2] Since the 15th century, it was owned by several noble families. In 1736, the village was bought by Karl Beess. The Beess family was the last feudal owner of the Hnojník manor.[3] The local population worked mostly as peasants on the properties of the Beess family. Several mills operated in the village. The Beess family established a brewery, distillery and a brickworks. In 1917, Teschen-based Jewish businessman Ignaz Schmelz established a steam-powered sawmill; in 1923, it burnt down and was rebuilt only to be closed soon after.

After the division of Cieszyn Silesia in 1920, the village became part of Czechoslovakia as Hnojník. At the beginning of July 1930, the village was visited by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, President of Czechoslovakia who then travelled across the Czechoslovak part of Cieszyn Silesia. Following the Munich Agreement, in October 1938, Hnojník and the whole Zaolzie region were annexed by Poland. The village was then annexed by Nazi Germany at the beginning of World War II. After the war, it was restored to Czechoslovakia. The Beess family property was confiscated in November 1945.[3][4] In 1946, Baron Georg Beess,[5] the last noble from the Beess family to own properties in Hnojník, was expelled from the country and was deprived of his property according to the Beneš decrees affecting the Germans in Czechoslovakia. The mayor of Hnojník refused to sign the decree to expel Georg Beess,[6] nevertheless he was expelled to Germany where he died in 1955.[7]

Landmarks

The most prominent landmark in Hnojník is a baroque château built in 1736 in the central part of the village by order of Karl Beess. It was rebuilt in an empire style in the first half of the 19th century according to the plans of Viennese architect Joseph Kornhäusel. After World War II, the château was confiscated by the state administration as was mentioned above. Part of the furniture and paintings was relocated to the château in Šternberk. However, a significant part of it was stolen by unknown persons. The library was relocated to Šternberk and Potštát. The château became a property of the local administration and since 1966 of the collective farm (JZD). Since the 1970s, the château slowly dilapidated. After the fall of communism in 1989, it became a property of a private owner who didn't renovate it and the landmark continued to dilapidate. The state administration sold the landmark in 2008 to a new private owner, after the old one lost his property rights when he was imprisoned. The château in Hnojník remains one of the most endangered cultural landmarks in the country.

Another important landmark is the Roman Catholic Ascension of the Virgin Mary Church. It is not clear when it was built, but the initial wooden church was torn down and a new brick empire style one built in its place in 1808–1812.

There is a Catholic cemetery adjacent to the church. It is bordered by a 19th century stone wall. The Beess family tomb is located there. This rectangular building was built in the second half of the 19th century in an empire style.

The first school was built in the 17th century; it is not clear exactly when. The language of instruction was Polish and later also German. The second school in the village began operating in 1853. It was a private Protestant school. Since 1874, it was a public school, therefore also Catholic children could attend it. The language of instruction was Polish. Both schools were joined in 1923 to one Polish school which operates to date. In June 2008, it was named after Jan Kubisz, the most known personality linked to Hnojník (Gnojnik). Kubisz was an educator and writer, author of the poem Płyniesz Olzo po dolinie which became an unofficial anthem of the Zaolzie region, especially local Poles. His house still stands in the village.

The first Czech school, the Catholic one, was formed in 1920. It was, however, replaced by a completely new, large Czech school built in 1931 and named after Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, President of Czechoslovakia.

People

  • Jan Kubisz, Polish educator and writer, taught here for most of his life
  • Adam Makowicz, Polish jazz musician, was born here

Footnotes

References

External links

  • (Czech) Official website


Coordinates: 49°40′52″N 18°32′21″E / 49.68111°N 18.53917°E / 49.68111; 18.53917

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.