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Jorge Luis Borges

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Jorge Luis Borges

, such as critic Eleuterio Tiscornia, for their Europeanising approach. Borges denies that Argentine literature should distinguish itself by limiting itself to "local colour", which he equates with cultural nationalism.[89] [87]

Argentine culture

Borges focused on universal themes, but also composed a substantial body of literature on themes from Argentine folklore and history. His first book, the poetry collection Fervor de Buenos Aires (Passion for Buenos Aires), appeared in 1923. Borges's writings on things Argentine, include Argentine culture ("History of the Tango"; "Inscriptions on Horse Wagons"), folklore ("Juan Muraña", "Night of the Gifts"), literature ("The Argentine Writer and Tradition", "Almafuerte"; "Evaristo Carriego"), and national concerns ("Celebration of the Monster", "Hurry, Hurry", "The Mountebank", "Pedro Salvadores"). Ultranationalists, however, continued to question his Argentine identity.[90]

Borges's interest in Argentine themes reflects, in part, the inspiration of his family tree. Borges had an English paternal grandmother who, around 1870, married the criollo Francisco Borges, a man with a military command and a historic role in the Coronel Suárez in the south of Buenos Aires Province is named after him.

His non-fiction explores many of the themes found in his fiction. Essays such as "The History of the Qur'an was proof enough that it was an Arabian work. He suggested that only someone trying to write an "Arab" work would purposefully include a camel.[90] He uses this example to illustrate how his dialogue with universal existential concerns was just as Argentine as writing about gauchos and tangos.

Multicultural Influences

At the time of the [81] As a young man, he visited the frontier Alfonso Reyes "the best prose-writer in the Spanish language of any time."[95]

Borges was also an admirer of some Oriental culture, e.g. the ancient Chinese board game of Go, about which he penned some verses,[96] while The Garden of Forking Paths had a strong oriental theme.



Plaque Jorge Luis Borges at 13 rue des Beaux-Arts in Paris

Borges was rooted in the anarchist Spencerian As a universalist, his interest in world literature reflected an attitude that was also incongruent with the [99] As a political conservative, Borges "was repulsed by Marxism in theory and practice. Abhorring sentimentality, he rejected the politics and poetics of cultural identity that held sway in Latin America for so long."

Political influences


[63], following his father.[100][101]


The essay collection Borges y la Matemática (Borges and Mathematics, 2003) by Argentine mathematician and writer

  • Jorge Luis Borges at DMOZ
  • Open Library
  • Ronald Christ (Winter–Spring 1967). "Jorge Luis Borges, The Art of Fiction No. 39". Paris Review. 
  • BBC Radio 4 discussion programme from In our time. (Audio 45 mins)
  • Jorge Luis Borges at The Modern Word
  • Borges Center, University of Pittsburgh.
  • The Friends of Jorge Luis Borges Worldwide Society & Associates
  • International Foundation Jorge Luis Borges

External links

  • Agheana, Ion (1988). The Meaning of Experience in the Prose of Jorge Luis Borges. Frankfurt Am Main: P. Lang.  
  • Agheana, Ion (1984). The Prose of Jorge Luis Borges. Frankfurt Am Main: P. Lang.  
  • Aizenberg, Edna (1984). The Aleph Weaver: Biblical, Kabbalistic and Judaic Elements in Borges. Potomac: Scripta Humanistica.  
  • Aizenberg, Edna (1990). Borges and His Successors. Columbia: University of Missouri Press.  
  • Alazraki, Jaime (1988). Borges and the Kabbalah. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  
  • Alazraki, Jaime (1987). Critical Essays on Jorge Luis Borges. Boston: G.K. Hall.  
  • Balderston, Daniel (1993). Out of Context. Durham: Duke University Press.  
  • Barnstone, Willis (1993). With Borges on an Ordinary Evening in Buenos Aires. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.  
  • Bell-Villada, Gene (1981). Borges and His Fiction. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.  
  • Bioy Casares, Adolfo (2006). Borges. City: Destino Ediciones.  
  • Bloom, Harold (1986). Jorge Luis Borges. New York: Chelsea House Publishers.  
  • Bulacio, Cristina; Grima, Donato (1998). Dos Miradas sobre Borges. Buenos Aires: Ediciones de Arte Gaglianone.   Illustrated by Donato Grima.
  • Burgin, Richard (1969) Jorge Luis Borges: Conversations, Holt Rhinehart Winston
  • Burgin, Richard (1998) Jorge Luis Borges: Conversations, University Press of Mississippi
  • De Behar, Block (2003). Borges, the Passion of an Endless Quotation. Albany: State University of New York Press.  
  • Di Giovanni, Norman Thomas (1995). The Borges Tradition. London: Constable in association with the Anglo-Argentine Society.  
  • Di Giovanni, Norman Thomas (2003). The Lesson of the Master. London: Continuum.  
  • Dunham, Lowell (1971). The Cardinal Points of Borges. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.  
  • Fishburn, Evelyn (2002). Borges and Europe Revisited. City: Univ of London.  
  • Frisch, Mark (2004). You Might Be Able to Get There from Here. Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.  
  • Kristal, Efraín (2002). Invisible Work. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.  
  • Laín Corona, Guillermo. "Borges and Cervantes: Truth and Falsehood in the Narration”. Neophilologus, 93 (2009): 421-37.
  • Laín Corona, Guillermo. "Teoría y práctica de la metáfora en torno a Fervor de Buenos Aires, de Borges”. Cuadernos de Aleph. Revista de literatura hispánica, 2 (2007): 79-93.
  • Lima, Robert (1993). "Borges and the Esoteric". Crítica hispánica. Special issue (Duquesne University) 15 (2).  
  • Lindstrom, Naomi (1990). Jorge Luis Borges. Boston: Twayne Publishers.  
  • Manguel, Alberto (2006). With Borges. City: Telegram.  
  • Manovich, Lev, New Media from Borges to HTML, 2003
  • McMurray, George (1980). Jorge Luis Borges. New York: Ungar.  
  • Molloy, Sylvia (1994). Signs of Borges. Durham: Duke University Press.  
  • Murray, Janet H., Inventing the Medium, 2003
  • Núñez-Faraco, Humberto (2006). Borges and Dante. Frankfurt Am Main: P. Lang.  
  • Racz, Gregary (2003). Jorge Luis Borges (1899–1986) as Writer and Social Critic. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press.  
  • Rodríguez, Monegal (1978). Jorge Luis Borges. New York: Dutton.  
  • Shaw, Donald (1992). Borges' Narrative Strategy. Liverpool: Francis Cairns.  
  • Stabb, Martin (1991). Borges Revisited. Boston: Twayne Publishers.  
  • Sturrock, John (1977). Paper Tigers. Oxford: Clarendon Press.  
  • Todorov, Tzvetan (1970). Introduction à la littérature fantastique. Paris: Seuil. 
  • Toro, Alfonso (1999). Jorge Luis Borges. Frankfurt Am Main: Vervuert.  
  • Volek, Emil (1984). "Aquiles y la Tortuga: Arte, imaginación y realidad según Borges". In: Cuatro claves para la modernidad. Analisis semiótico de textos hispánicos. Madrid. 
  • Waisman, Sergio (2005). Borges and Translation. Lewisburg Pa.: Bucknell University Press.  
  • Williamson, Edwin (2004). Borges: A Life. New York: Viking.  
  • Wilson, Jason (2006). Jorge Luis Borges. London: Reaktion Books.  
  • Woscoboinik, Julio (1998). The Secret of Borges. Washington: University Press of America.  
  • Mualem, Shlomy (2012). Borges and Plato: A Game with Shifting Mirrors. Madrid and Frankfurt: Iberoamericana/Vervuert.  



Further reading

  1. ^ Jozef, Bella. "Borges: linguagem e metalinguagem". In: O espaço reconquistado. Petrópolis, RJ: Vozes, 1974, p.43.
  2. ^ a b Theo L. D'Haen (1995) "Magical Realism and Postmodernism: Decentering Privileged Centers", in: Louis P. Zamora and Wendy B. Faris, Magical Realism: Theory, History and Community. Duhan and London, Duke University Press pp. 191–208.
  3. ^ On his conference "Magical Realism in Spanish American" (Nova York, MLA, 1954), published later in Hispania, 38 (2), 1955.
  4. ^ In short, Borges's blindness led him to favour poetry and shorter narratives over novels. Ferriera, Eliane Fernanda C. "O (In) visível imaginado em Borges". In: Pedro Pires Bessa (ed.). Riqueza Cultural Ibero-Americana. Campus de Divinópolis-UEMG, 1996, pp. 313–314.
  5. ^ Borges on Life and Death Interview by Amelia Barili
  6. ^ (Portuguese) Masina, Lea. (2001) "Murilo Rubião, o mágico do conto". In: O pirotécnico Zacarias e outros contos escolhidos. Porto Alegre: L & PM, p5.
  7. ^ Coetzee, J.M. "Borges's Dark Mirror", New York Review of Books, Volume 45, Number 16. October 22, 1998
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q 2006-05-11."Don’t abandon me" Tóibín, Colm London Review of Books Retrieved 2009-04-19
  9. ^ Borges, Jorge Luis, "Autobiographical Notes", The New Yorker, 19 September 1970. ^
  10. ^ Borges and His Fiction: A Guide to His Mind and Art (1999) Gene H. Bell-Villada, University of Texas Press, p. 16 ISBN 9780292708785
  11. ^ Wilson, Jason (2006). Jorge Luis Borges. Reaktion Books. p. 37.  
  12. ^ . Full introduction by James Irby. University of Texas ISBN 978-0-292-76002-8Borges: Other Inquisitions 1937–1952 Accessed 2010-08-16
  13. ^ "Ivonne Bordelois, "The Sur Magazine" Villa Ocampo Website". Retrieved 2011-08-24. 
  14. ^ Borges, Jorge Luis. Trans. Mildred Boyer and Harold Morland. Dreamtigers. University of Texas Press, 1985, p. 25.
  15. ^ Boldy (2009) p. 32
  16. ^ Bolter, Jay David; Joyce, Michael (1987). "Hypertext '87 Papers". ACM. pp. 41–50. 
  17. ^ Moulthrop, Stuart (1991). "Reading From the Map: Metonymy and Metaphor in the Fiction of 'Forking Paths'". In Delany, Paul; Landow, George P. Hypermedia and Literary Studies. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: The MIT Press. 
  18. ^ "Borges, Jorge Luis (Vol.32)". enotes. Retrieved 2008-12-03. 
  19. ^ Wardrip-Fruin, Noah & Montfort, Nick (2003). The New Media Reader. MIT Press.
  20. ^ , Alberto Manguel (2006) With Borges, London:Telegram Books pp. 15–16.
  21. ^ Woodall, J: The Man in Mirror of the Book, A Life of Luis Borges, (1996) Hodder and Stoughton pxxx.
  22. ^ "Days of Hate". Imdb. Retrieved 2008-12-04. 
  23. ^ Jorge Luis Borges (1984) Seven Nights, A New Directions Book pp 109-110.
  24. ^ a b c d Burgin (1988) p xvii
  25. ^ "The Craft of Verse: The Norton Lectures, 1967-68". UbuWeb: Sound. Retrieved 1 January 2014. 
  26. ^ H. R. Hays, ed. (1943) 12 Spanish American Poets. New Haven: Yale University Press p118-139.
  27. ^ Jeffrey Alan Marks (2008) Anthony Boucher: A Biobibliography McFarland publishers, p77 ISBN 9780786433209
  28. ^ Borges, Jorge Luis (1998) Collected Fictions Viking Penguin. Translation and notes by Andrew Hurley. Editorial note p 517.
  29. ^ Edgar Awards
  30. ^ UVA, Special Collections Library.
  31. ^ Montes-Bradley, Eduardo. "Cada pieza es de un valor incalculable" Cover Article. Revista Ñ, Diario Clarin. Buenos Aires, September 5th, 2011.
  32. ^ Norman Thomas Di Giovanni, The Lessons of the Master
  33. ^ "Fanny", El Señor Borges
  34. ^ Israel Shenker (April 6, 1971). "Borges, a Blind Writer With Insight". New York Times. Retrieved 30 April 2013. Being an agnostic means all things are possible, even God, even the Holy Trinity. This world is so strange that anything may happen, or may not happen. Being an agnostic makes me live in a larger, a more fantastic kind of world, almost uncanny. It makes me more tolerant. 
  35. ^ María Kodama demanda a un periodista francés por difamación y reclama nada más que 1 euro
  36. ^ Se suspendió un juicio por obras de Borges: reacción de Kodama
  37. ^ (Spanish) Octavi Martí, Kodama frente a Borges, El País (Madrid), Edición Impresa, 16 August 2006. Abstract online; full text accessible online by subscription only.
  38. ^ Richard Flanagan, "Writing with Borges", The Age (Australia), 12 July 2003. Accessed 2010-08-16
  39. ^ Burgin (1968). p. 104.
  40. ^ Edwin Williamson, Borges: A Life, pp. 332–333.
  41. ^ Williamson (2004), page 334.
  42. ^ Williamson (2004), pages 334-335.
  43. ^ Burgin (1968) pp. 95–6
  44. ^ a b De Costa, René (2000) Humor in Borges (Humor in Life & Letters). Wayne State University Press p. 49 ISBN 0-8143-2888-1
  45. ^ Jorge Luis Borges, Selected Nonfictions, p 200.
  46. ^ Selected Nonfictions, page 201.
  47. ^ Borges, Selected Nonfictions, page 211.
  48. ^ Burgin (1968), pp 31-332.
  49. ^ Williamson (2004) p. 292
  50. ^ Williamson (2004) p. 295
  51. ^ Williamson (2004) p. 312
  52. ^ a b Williamson (2004) p. 313
  53. ^ Williamson (2004) p. 320.
  54. ^ Williamson (2004) pp. 320-321.
  55. ^ (Spanish) Jorge Luis Borges. Galería de Directores, Biblioteca Nacional (Argentina) at the Wayback Machine (archived April 16, 2008). (archived from the original, on 16 April 2008.)
  56. ^ Jorge Luis Borges, Selected Nonfictions, p. 410.
  57. ^ Burgin (1969), p 121
  58. ^ a b National Geographic, March 1975. p. 303.
  59. ^ a b Williamson (2004) p. 491
  60. ^ University of Illinois Press, 1993. pp. 30-31.
  61. ^ Falkland Islands: Imperial pride
  62. ^ a b Wardrip-Fruin, Noah, and Nick Montfort, ed. (2003). The New Media Reader. Cambridge: The MIT Press, p. 29. ISBN 0-262-23227-8
  63. ^ Borges, Jorge Luis. (1994) Siete Noches. Obras Completas, vol. III. Buenos Aires: Emecé
  64. ^ Unthinking Thinking: Jorge Luis Borges, Mathematics, and the New Physics (1991) Floyd Merrell, Purdue University Press pxii ISBN 9781557530110
  65. ^ May 7, 1972 "The Other Borges Than the Central One"New York Times
  66. ^ Reading Borges After Benjamin: Allegory, Afterlife, and the Writing of History (2008) Kate Jenckes, SUNY Press, p136, p117, p101, p136 ISBN 9780791469903
  67. ^ Kristal, Efraín (2002). Invisible Work. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press. p. 37.  
  68. ^ Jorge Luis Borges, This Craft of Verse, Harvard University Press, 2000. pp. 57–76. Word Music and Translation, Lecture, Delivered February 28, 1968.
  69. ^ Borges This Craft of Verse (p104)
  70. ^ Borges Collected Fictions, p67
  71. ^ University of Pittsburgh, Borges Center Jorge Luis Borges, autor del poema "Instantes", by Iván Almeida. Retrieved January 10, 2011
  72. ^ Internetaleph, Martin Hadis' site on The Life & Works of Jorge Luis Borges. Retrieved January 10, 2011
  73. ^ a b Katra, William H. (1988) Contorno: Literary Engagement in Post-Perónist Argentina. Teaneck, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, pp. 56–57
  74. ^ The Queer Use of Communal Women in Borges's "El muerto" and "La intrusa", paper presented at XIX Latin American Studies Association (LASA) Congress held in Washington DC in September 1995.
  75. ^ Hurley, Andrew (1988) Jorge Luis Borges: Collected Fictions. New York: Penguin p197.
  76. ^ Hurley, Andrew (1988) Jorge Luis Borges: Collected Fictions. New York: Penguin p200
  77. ^ Hurley, Andrew 1988) Jorge Luis Borges: Collected Fictions. New York: Penguin
  78. ^ Keller, Gary; Karen S. Van Hooft (1976). "Jorge Luis Borges's `La intrusa:' The Awakening of Love and Consciousness/The Sacrifice of Love and Consciousness.". In Eds. Lisa E. Davis and Isabel C. Tarán. The Analysis of Hispanic Texts: Current Trends in Methodology. Bilingual P. pp. 300–319. 
  79. ^ Feldman, Burton (2000) The Nobel Prize: a History of Genius, Controversy and Prestige, Arcade Publishing p57
  80. ^ a b profile. "Jorge Luis Borges" 22 July 2008Guardian. Accessed 2010-08-15
  81. ^ 7 October 1983The New York Times"Briton Wins the Nobel Literature Prize." James M. Markham. . Accessed 2010-08-15
  82. ^ Feldman, Burton (2000) The Nobel Prize: a History of Genius, Controversy and Prestige, Arcade Publishing p81
  83. ^ Borges, Luis Borges (1979) Book of Imaginary Beings Penguin Books Australia p. 11 ISBN 0-525-47538-9
  84. ^ a b Murray, Janet H. "Inventing the Medium" The New Media Reader. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003.
  85. ^ Jorge Luis Borges (February 1988). Labyrinths: Selected Stories & Other Writings. New Direction Books. p. 201. 
  86. ^ a b c Gabriel Waisman, Sergio (2005) Borges and Translation: The Irreverence of the Periphery Bucknell University Press pp. 126–9 ISBN 0-8387-5592-5
  87. ^ Borges and Guerrero (1953) El "Martín Fierro ISBN 84-206-1933-7
  88. ^ a b c Borges, Jorge Luis and Lanuza, Eduardo González (1961) "The Argentine writer and tradition" Latin American and European Literary Society
  89. ^ a b c d Takolander, Maria (2007) Catching butterflies: bringing magical realism to ground Peter Lang Pub Inc pp. 55–60. ISBN 3-03911-193-0
  90. ^ David Boruchoff (1985), “In Pursuit of the Detective Genre: ‘La muerte y la brújula’ of Jorge Luis Borges,” Inti: Revista de Literatura Hispánica no. 21, pp. 13-26.
  91. ^
  92. ^ Borges and His Fiction: A Guide to His Mind and ArtBell-Villada, Gene University of Texas Press ISBN 978-0-292-70878-5
  93. ^ Williamson, Edwin (2004). Borges: a life. Viking. p. 53.  
  94. ^ Borges Siete Noches, p156
  95. ^ "El Go". GoBase. Retrieved 26 August 2011. 
  96. ^ Britton, R (July 1979). "History, Myth, and Archetype in Borges's View of Argentina". The Modern Language Review (Modern Humanities Research Association) 74 (3): 607–616.  
  97. ^ de Man, Paul. "A Modern Master", Jorge Luis Borges, Ed. Harold Bloom, New York: Chelsea House Pub, 1986. p. 22.
  98. ^ Article. Paid Subscription onlyNew york Times
  99. ^ Yudin, Florence (1997). Nightglow: Borges' Poetics of Blindness. City: Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca. p. 31.  
  100. ^ Bell-Villada, Gene (1981). Borges and His Fiction. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. p. 13.  
  101. ^ Martinez, Guillermo (2003) Borges y la Matemática (Spanish Edition) Editorial Universitaria de Buenos Aires. ISBN 950-23-1296-1
  102. ^ Boldy, Steven. A Companion to Jorge Luis Borges. Woodbridge: Tamesis, 2009. pp. 9–14. ISBN 9781855661899


  1. ^ Edwin Williamson suggests in Borges (Viking, 2004) that Borges did not finish his baccalauréat (pp. 79-80): "he cannot have been too bothered about his baccalauréat, not least because he loathed and feared examination. (He was never to finish his high school education, in fact)."
  2. ^ "His was a particular kind of blindness, grown on him gradually since the age of thirty and settled in for good after his fifty-eighth birthday." From Manguel, Alberto (2006) With Borges. London: Telegram Books pp. 15–16.
  3. ^ The Borges poems in H. R. Hays, ed. (1943) 12 Spanish American Poets are "A Patio", "Butcher Shop", "Benares", "The Recoleta", "A Day's Run", "General Quiroga Rides to Death in a Carriage", "July Avenue," and "Natural Flow of Memory".
  4. ^ Notable translations also include work by Melville, Faulkner, Sir Thomas Browne, and G. K. Chesterton.
  5. ^ a b c His imitations of Swedenborg and others were originally passed off as translations, in his literary column in Crítica. "El teólogo" was originally published with the note "Lo anterior ... es obra de Manuel Swedenborg, eminente ingeniero y hombre de ciencia, que durante 27 años estuvo en comercio lúcido y familiar con el otro mundo." ("The preceding [...] is the work of Emanuel Swedenborg, eminent engineer and man of science, who during 27 years was in lucid and familiar commerce with the other world.") See "Borges y Revista multicolor de los sábados: confabulados en una escritura de la infamia" by Raquel Atena Green in Wor(l)ds of Change: Latin American and Iberian Literature Volume 32 2010 Peter Lang publishers, ISBN 978-0-8204-3467-4
  6. ^ Non-linearity was key to the development of digital media. See Murray, Janet H. "Inventing the Medium" The New Media Reader. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003


8. Francisco de Borges
4. Francisco Borges
9. María del Carmen Lafinur
2. Jorge Guillermo Borges
10. Edward Young Haslam
5. Frances Ann Haslam
11. Jane Arnett
1. Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges[103]
12. Judas Tadeo Acevedo
6. Isidoro Acevedo Laprida
13. Hermenegilda Laprida y Olivera
3. Leonor Acevedo Suárez
14. Manuel Isidoro Suárez
7. Leonor Suárez Haedo
15. Jacinta Martínez de Haedo y Soler
Ancestors of Jorge Luis Borges

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