World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Murex

Article Id: WHEBN0000440468
Reproduction Date:

Title: Murex  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Gastropod shell, Phoenicia, Violet (color), Purple, Muricinae
Collection: Cretaceous First Appearances, Muricidae
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Murex

Murex
Temporal range: Cretaceous - Recent
Є
O
S
D
C
P
T
J
K
Pg
N
Apertural view of the shell of Venus Comb Murex, Murex pecten, anterior end towards the bottom of the page
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Caenogastropoda
clade Hypsogastropoda
clade Neogastropoda
Superfamily: Muricoidea
Family: Muricidae
Subfamily: Muricinae
Genus: Murex
Linnaeus, 1758
Species

See text.

Synonyms[1]

Murex is a genus of medium to large sized predatory tropical sea snails. These are carnivorous marine gastropod molluscs in the family Muricidae, commonly called "murexes" or "rock snails".[1]

The common name murex is still used for a large number of species in the family Muricidae which were originally given the Latin generic name Murex in the past, but have more recently been regrouped into different newer genera.

The word murex was used by Aristotle in reference to these kinds of snails, thus making it one of the oldest classical seashell names still in use by the scientific community.

Contents

  • Fossil records 1
  • Distribution 2
  • Habitat 3
  • Shell description 4
  • Human use 5
  • Species 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Fossil records

This genus is known in the fossil records from the Cretaceous to the Quaternary (age range: from 125.45 to 0.0 million years ago). Fossils of species within this genus have been found all over the world. There are about 25 extinct species. [2]

Murex altispira
Fossil shell of Murex spinicosta from Pliocene of Italy

Distribution

Murex is solely an Indo-Pacific genus, as demonstrated by Ponder & Vokes (1988). The species from the western Atlantic that were formerly considered to belong in the genus Murex are now placed in the genus Haustellum.

Habitat

Most Murex species live in the intertidal or shallow subtidal zone, among rocks and corals.

Shell description

This genus includes many showy members, their elongate shells highly sculptured with spines or fronds. The inner surfaces of their ornate shells are often brightly colored.

Human use

Costly and labor-intensive dyes bromoperoxidase enzyme that operates on dissolved bromide in sea water.[3]

This dye was used in royal robes, other kinds of special ceremonial or ritual garments, or garments indicating high rank. It is hypothesised that the dye was the same dye as that which featured prominently in the ancient Temple in Jerusalem, the clothing of the High Priest (or Kohen Gadol) officiating there; it is sometimes still used by Jews today in the ritual fringes (tzitzit) on four-cornered garments.[4] A consensus has yet to be reached regarding the Biblical source of the "blue" dye.

Species

The genus Murex, as originally defined by Linnaeus, encompassed many taxa that are now placed elsewhere in the superfamily Muricoidea. During the 19th century, the definition of Murex was restricted by Lamarck and his contemporaries first to species in the family Muricidae, and then was limited even further to the subfamilies Muricinae and Ocenebrinae. Malacologists of the 19th century including Kiener, Reeve, Küster & Kobelt and Sowerby treated all muricoid forms as belonging to Murex. This is the main reason why Murex has so many synonyms.

The World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS), lists the following species and subspecies with accepted names within the genus Murex. [5]

Subgenus Murex (Murex) Linnaeus, 1758
Subgenus Murex (Promurex) Ponder & Vokes, 1988
Species mentioned as species in current use in the Indo-Pacific Molluscan Database (OBIS)
Species brought into synonymy

References

  1. ^ a b Houart, R.; Gofas, S. (2010). Murex Linnaeus, 1758. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138196 on 2011-04-09
  2. ^ Fossilworks
  3. ^ Jannun R., Nuwayhid N. and Coe E. (1981) Biological bromination – bromoperoxidase activity in the Murex sea-snail. FASEB. J. 40, 1774.
  4. ^ Tekhelet - Biblical Blue Dye for Tzitzit
  5. ^ WoRMS : Murex 23 December 2010
  6. ^ Watson, 1883Murex acanthostephes.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  7. ^ ^Houart, R. (2009). Murex aduncospinosus Sowerby, 1841. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=215644 on 2010-08-06
  8. ^ Ponder & Vokes, 1988Murex africanus.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  9. ^ Ponder & Vokes, 1988Murex altispira.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  10. ^ Vokes, 1967Murex balkeanus.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  11. ^ Murex brevispinaWoRMS (2010).| Lamarck, 1822. World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) [2] 9 April 2011
  12. ^ Voigt, 1834Murex buccinatus.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  13. ^ Reeve, 1845Murex concinnus.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  14. ^ Houart, R. (2009). Murex djarianensis poppei Houart, 1979. Accessed through the World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=404977 on 2010-08-06
  15. ^ Houart & Dharma, 2001Murex hystricosus.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  16. ^ Neubert, 1998Murex megapex.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  17. ^ Ponder & Vokes, 1988Murex ornamentalis.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  18. ^ Parth, 1994Murex philippinensis.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  19. ^ Parth, 1994Murex salomonensis.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  20. ^ Parth, 1990Murex somalicus.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  21. ^ Okutani, 1982Murex surinamensis.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  22. ^ Gabb, 1873Murex textilis.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  23. ^ Lischke, 1868Murex troscheli.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  24. ^ (Jousseaume, 1881)Murex carbonnieri.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  25. ^ E. A. Smith, 1884Murex coppingeri.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  26. ^ Ponder & Vokes, 1988Murex falsitribulus.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  27. ^ Röding, 1798Murex forskoehli.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  28. ^ Ponder & Vokes, 1988Murex kerslakae.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  29. ^ Sowerby, 1834Murex occa.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  30. ^ Lightfoot, 1786Murex pecten.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  31. ^ Ponder & Vokes, 1988Murex queenslandicus.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  32. ^ Dillwyn, 1817Murex scolopax.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  33. ^ Ponder & Vokes, 1988Murex spectabilis.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  34. ^ Ponder & Vokes, 1988Murex spicatus.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  35. ^ Lamarck, 1822Murex tenuirostrum.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  36. ^ Lamarck, 1822Murex ternispina.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  37. ^ Roding, 1798Murex trapa.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  38. ^ Linnaeus, 1758Murex tribulus.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  39. ^ Viader, 1938Murex antelmei.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  40. ^ Houart, 1990Murex protocrassus.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  41. ^ Indo-Pacific Molluscan Database : Murex (Murex) singaporensis
  42. ^ Watson, 1896Murex aedonius.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  43. ^ Clench & Farfante, 1945Murex argo.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  44. ^ Murex edwardsi .  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  45. ^ Reeve, 1849Murex gubbi.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  46. ^ Helbling, 1779Murex intertextus.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  47. ^ Gmelin, 1791Murex maroccensis.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  48. ^ Sowerby, 1841Murex monodon.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  49. ^ Gmelin, 1791Murex nassa.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  50. ^ Hinds, 1844aMurex peritus.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  51. ^ DunkerMurex purpuroides.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  52. ^ Murex recurvirostris .  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  53. ^ SowerbyMurex rota.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  54. ^ Murex rubidus .  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  55. ^ Murex triqueter .  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  56. ^ Linnaeus, 1758Murex tulipa.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  57. ^ Broderip, 1833Murex vittatus.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010.
  • Merle, D., Garrigues, B. & Pointier, J.-P. 2011. Fossil and Recent Muricidae of the World, Part Muricinae. 648 pp., 182 colour plates, Hackenheim. ISBN 978-3-939767-32-9.
  • Ponder, W.F. & E.H. Vokes. 1988. A revision of the Indo-West Pacific fossil and Recent species of Murex s.s. and Haustellum (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Muricidae). Records of the Australian Museum, Supplement 8. 160 pp.

External links

  • A history of animalsAristotle, 350 B.C.E.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.