World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0002784339
Reproduction Date:

Title: Żubroń  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Bovid hybrid, Beefalo, Bison, European bison, Beef
Collection: 1847 Introductions, Beef, Bovid Hybrids
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


A żubroń in Białowieża National Park
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Bovidae
Species: Bos taurus × Bison bonasus
Binomial name

Żubroń (;

  1. ^ PWN-Oxford Polish-English Dictionary ISBN 83-01-14312-6
  2. ^ (Polish)
  3. ^ ag (2007-03-05). "Żubr wyrzucony z Bieszczadów za przyjaźń z ludźmi".  


See also

Żubroń are heavy animals, with males weighing up to 1,200 kilograms (2,600 lb) and females up to 810 kilograms (1,790 lb). They are strong, resistant to disease and tolerant of harsh weather conditions. The first-cross calves have to be born by caesarean section, because although they may be carried successfully to full term, parturition never occurs. Males are infertile in the first generation. Females are fertile and can be crossbred with either parent species, i.e. with cattle or wisent, and males from these backcrosses are fertile.


The experiment was continued until the late 1980s, when the results of the breeding programmes were deemed unsatisfactory. Various factors contributed to this decision, including the severe economic difficulties of the Polish socialist economy in the 1980s, a lack of interest from the notoriously ineffective SAFs, and fears that żubroń would crossbreed with the endangered wild wisent, contaminating their gene pool. The two notable centres for experiments on the species were Łękno (391 animals altogether) and Popielno (121 animals), while limited experiments were also held in the reserve of Askania Nova in the USSR. This was discontinued, and the sole surviving herd consists of several animals only, kept at Bialowieski National Park. As of 2007, however, there are press releases suggesting the breeding and experiments are continuing in Karolewo in Greater Poland.[3]

The żubroń was first created by Leopold Walicki in 1847, although the hybrid may also have appeared at an earlier time. After World War I, various scientists considered żubroń a possible replacement for domestic cattle. Żubroń turned out to be more durable and less susceptible to disease. In addition, the animal could be bred on marginal grazing land with no farm infrastructure and with minimal husbandry in huge state agricultural farms (SAFs). From 1958, the work on żubroń herds was continued by the Polish Academy of Sciences in various laboratories, most notably in Białowieża and Młodzikowo. During the first 16 years of experiments, a total of 71 animals were born, including Filon, the first żubroń born to a żubroń mother (August 6, 1960). The animal was intended to become a hardy and cheap alternative to cattle.



  • History 1
  • Description 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.