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1-Propanol

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1-Propanol

1-Propanol
Names
IUPAC name
Propan-1-ol[1]
Other names
  • n-Propyl alcohol
  • n-Propanol
  • n-PrOH
  • Ethylcarbinol
  • 1-Hydroxypropane
  • Propionic alcohol
  • Propionyl alcohol
  • Propionylol
  • Propyl alcohol
  • Propylic alcohol
  • Propylol
Identifiers
 Y
3DMet
ATC code D08
1098242
ChEBI  Y
ChEMBL  Y
ChemSpider  Y
DrugBank  Y
EC number 200-746-9
25616
Jmol-3D images Image
KEGG  N
MeSH
PubChem
RTECS number UH8225000
UNII  Y
UN number 1274
Properties
C3H8O
Molar mass 60.10 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid
Odor mild, alcohol-like[2]
Density .803 g/mL
Melting point −126 °C; −195 °F; 147 K
Boiling point 97 to 98 °C; 206 to 208 °F; 370 to 371 K
miscible
log P 0.329
Vapor pressure 1.99 kPa (at 20 °C)
Acidity (pKa) 16
Basicity (pKb) −2
1.387
Viscosity 1.959 mPa×s (at 25 °C) [3]
1.68 D
Thermochemistry
143.96 J K−1 mol−1
192.8 J K−1 mol−1
−302.79–−302.29 kJ mol−1
−2.02156–−2.02106 MJ mol−1
Hazards
GHS pictograms The flame pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) The corrosion pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
GHS signal word DANGER
H225, H318, H336
P210, P261, P280, P305+351+338
Highly Flammable F Irritant Xi
R-phrases R11, R41, R67
S-phrases (S2), S7, S16, S24, S26, S39
NFPA 704
3
1
0
Flash point 22 °C (72 °F; 295 K)
371 °C (700 °F; 644 K)
Explosive limits 2.2% - 13.7%[2]
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
LD50 (Median dose)
2800 mg/kg (rabbit, oral)
6800 mg/kg (mouse, oral)
1870 mg/kg (rat, oral)[4]
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 200 ppm (500 mg/m3)[2]
REL (Recommended)
TWA 200 ppm (500 mg/m3) ST 250 ppm (625 mg/m3) [skin][2]
800 ppm[2]
Related compounds
Related compounds
Butane
Propanamine
Ethanol
Butanol
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 N  (: Y/N?)

1-Propanol, is a primary alcohol with the formula CH3CH2CH2OH. This colorless liquid is also known as propan-1-ol, 1-propyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, and n-propanol. It is an isomer of isopropanol (2-propanol, isopropyl alcohol). It is formed naturally in small amounts during many fermentation processes and used as a solvent in the pharmaceutical industry mainly for resins and cellulose esters.

Contents

  • Chemical properties 1
  • Preparation 2
  • Safety 3
    • Inhalation 3.1
  • Propanol as fuel 4
  • References 5
  • Further reading 6
  • External links 7

Chemical properties

1-Propanol shows the normal reactions of a primary alcohol. Thus it can be converted to alkyl halides; for example red phosphorus and iodine produce n-propyl iodide in 80% yield, while PCl3 with catalytic ZnCl2 gives 1-chloropropane. Reaction with acetic acid in the presence of an H2SO4 catalyst under Fischer esterification conditions gives propyl acetate, while refluxing propanol overnight with formic acid alone can produce propyl formate in 65% yield. Oxidation of 1-propanol with Na2Cr2O7 and H2SO4 gives only a 36% yield of propionaldehyde, and therefore for this type of reaction higher yielding methods using PCC or the Swern oxidation are recommended. Oxidation with chromic acid yields propionic acid.

Some example reactions of 1-propanol

Preparation

1-Propanol is manufactured by catalytic hydrogenation of propionaldehyde. The propionaldehyde is itself produced via the oxo process, by hydroformylation of ethylene using carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst such as cobalt octacarbonyl or a rhodium complex.[5]

H2C=CH2 + CO + H2 → CH3CH2CH=O
CH3CH2CH=O + H2 → CH3CH2CH2OH

A traditional laboratory preparation of 1-propanol involves treating n-propyl iodide with moist Ag2O.

1-Propanol was discovered in 1853 by Chancel, who obtained it by fractional distillation of fusel oil. Indeed, 1-propanol is a major constituent of fusel oil, a by-product formed from certain amino acids when potatoes or grains are fermented to produce ethanol. This process is no longer a significant source of 1-propanol.

Safety

1-Propanol is thought to be similar to ethanol in its effects on human body, but 2-4 times more potent. Oral LD50 in rats is 1870 mg/kg (compared to 7060 mg/kg for ethanol). It is metabolized into propionic acid. Effects include alcoholic intoxication and high anion gap metabolic acidosis. As of 2011, only one case of lethal 1-propanol poisoning was reported.[6]

Inhalation

Although this method is rare, it does indeed exist. Propanol might be much more convenient than ethanol for inhalation because of its potency with nebulizers.

Propanol as fuel

1-propanol has high octane numbers and it is suitable to engine fuel usage. However, production of propanol has been too expensive to be a common fuel. The Research octane number (RON) of propanol is 118 and Anti-Knock Index (AKI) is 108.[7]

References

  1. ^ "1-Propanol - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 26 March 2005. Identification and Related Records. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0533".  
  3. ^ Pal, Amalendu; Gaba, Rekha (2008). "Volumetric, acoustic, and viscometric studies of molecular interactions in binary mixtures of dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether with 1-alkanols at 298.15 K". The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics 40 (5): 818–828.  
  4. ^ "n-Propyl alcohol". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health.  
  5. ^ Anthony J. Papa "Propanols" in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2011, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a22_173.pub2
  6. ^ "N-PROPANOL Health-Base Assessment and Recommendation for HEAC". 
  7. ^ "Bioalcohols". Biofuel.org.uk. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 

Further reading

  1. Furniss, B. S.; Hannaford, A. J.; Smith, P. W. G.; Tatchell, A. R. (1989), Vogel's Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry (5th ed.), Harlow: Longman,  
  2. Lide, David R., ed. (2006-06-26). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 87th Edition (87 ed.). TF-CRC.  
  3. Maryadele J. O'Neil, ed. (2006-11-03). The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals (14 ed.). Merck.  
  4. Perkin, W. H.; Kipping, F. S (1922). Organic Chemistry. London: W. & R. Chambers.  

External links

  • International Chemical Safety Card 0553
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
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