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2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether

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Title: 2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether  
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2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether

2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether
Identifiers
CAS number  N
PubChem
ChemSpider  YesY
ChEBI  N
ChEMBL  YesY
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C23H40O3
Molar mass 364.56 g/mol
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 N   YesY/N?)

2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether (2-AGE, Noladin ether) is a putative endocannabinoid discovered by Lumír Hanuš and colleagues at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. Its isolation from porcine brain and its structural elucidation and synthesis were described in 2001.[1]

Discovery

Lumír Hanuš, Saleh Abu-Lafi, Ester Fride, Aviva Breuer, Zvi Vogel, Deborah E. Shalev, Irina Kustanovich, and Raphael Mechoulam found the endogenous agonist of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) in 2000. The discovery was 100 gram of porcine brain, (approximately a single brain) was added to a mixture of 200 mL of chloroform and 200 mL of methanol and mixed in a laboratory blender for 2 minutes. 100 mL of Water was then added, and the mixing process continued for another minute. After this, the mixture was filtered. Two layers then formed and the layer of water-methanol was separated and evaporated when pressure was reduced. Synaptosomal membranes were prepared from 250g of the brains of Sabra male rats. A Hewlett Packard G 1800B GCD system that has a HP-5971 GC with electron ionization detector was used.[1]

Production

The production of the endocannabinoid is enhanced in normal, but not in endothelium-denuded rat aorta on reacting with carbachol, an parasympathomimetic drug. It potently reduces blood pressure in rats and may represent an endothelium-derived hypotension factor.[1]

2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether's structure can be determined by mass spectrometry and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. It was confirmed by comparison with a synthetic sample of the endocannabinoid. It binds to the Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (Ki = 21.2 ± 0.5 nM), which causes sedation, hypothermia, intestinal immobility, and mild antinociception in mice.[1] The endocannabinoid exhibits Ki values of 21.2 nM and >3 µM at the Cannabinoid receptor type 1 and the peripheral cannabinoid receptors.[2]

The presence of 2-AGE in body tissue is disputed. Although a research group from Teikyo University, Kanagawa, Japan could not detect it in the brains of mice, hamsters, guinea-pigs or pigs,[3] two other research groups successfully detected it in animal tissues.[4][5]

Pharmacology

2-AGE binds with a Ki of 21 nM to the CB1 receptor[1] and 480 nM to the CB2 receptor.[6] It shows agonistic behaviour on both receptors and is a partial agonist for the TRPV1 channel.[7] After binding to CB2 receptors it inhibits adenylate cyclase and stimulates ERK-MAPK and regulates calcium transients.[8] In comparison to 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, noladin is metabolically more stable resulting in a longer half-life.[9] It lowers Intraocular pressure,[9] increases the uptake of GABA in the globus pallidus of rats[10] and is neuroprotective by binding to and activation of PPARα.[11]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Hanus, L.; Abu-Lafi, S.; Fride, E.; Breuer, A.; Vogel, Z.; Shalev, D.; Kustanovich, I.; Mechoulam, R. (2001). "2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether, an endogenous agonist of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98 (7): 3662–3665.  
  2. ^ "2-Arachidonyl Glycerol ether · Noladin; 2-AG ether (CAS 222723-55-9) || Cayman Chemical". Cayman Chemical. Retrieved 2011-05-29.
  3. ^ Oka S, Tsuchie A, Tokumura A et al. (2003). "Ether-linked analogue of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (noladin ether) was not detected in the brains of various mammalian species". J. Neurochem. 85 (6): 1374–81.  
  4. ^ Fezza F, Bisogno T, Minassi A, Appendino G, Mechoulam R, Di Marzo V (2002). "Noladin ether, a putative novel endocannabinoid: inactivation mechanisms and a sensitive method for its quantification in rat tissues". FEBS Lett. 513 (2–3): 294–8.  
  5. ^ Richardson D, Ortori CA, Chapman V, Kendall DA, Barrett DA (2007). "Quantitative profiling of endocannabinoids and related compounds in rat brain using liquid chromatography-tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry". Anal. Biochem. 360 (2): 216–26.  
  6. ^ Shoemaker JL, Joseph BK, Ruckle MB, Mayeux PR, Prather PL (2005). "The endocannabinoid noladin ether acts as a full agonist at human CB2 cannabinoid receptors". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 314 (2): 868–75.  
  7. ^ Duncan M, Millns P, Smart D, Wright JE, Kendall DA, Ralevic V (2004). "Noladin ether, a putative endocannabinoid, attenuates sensory neurotransmission in the rat isolated mesenteric arterial bed via a non-CB1/CB2 Gi/o linked receptor". Br. J. Pharmacol. 142 (3): 509–18.  
  8. ^ Shoemaker JL, Ruckle MB, Mayeux PR, Prather PL (2005). "Agonist-directed trafficking of response by endocannabinoids acting at CB2 receptors". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 315 (2): 828–38.  
  9. ^ a b Laine K, Järvinen K, Mechoulam R, Breuer A, Järvinen T (2002). "Comparison of the enzymatic stability and intraocular pressure effects of 2-arachidonylglycerol and noladin ether, a novel putative endocannabinoid". Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43 (10): 3216–22.  
  10. ^ Venderova K, Brown TM, Brotchie JM (2005). "Differential effects of endocannabinoids on [(3)H]-GABA uptake in the rat globus pallidus". Exp. Neurol. 194 (1): 284–7.  
  11. ^ Sun Y, Alexander SP, Garle MJ et al. (2007). "Cannabinoid activation of PPARα; a novel neuroprotective mechanism". Br. J. Pharmacol. 152 (5): 734–43.  

External links

  • Commercial supplier of Noladin ether
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