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Title: 5-Fluorowillardiine  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: MMPIP, LY-344,545, EGLU, PEAQX, CECXG
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Stereo, Kekulé, skeletal formula of a minor 5-fluorowillardiine ((2S)-2-amino)
CAS number  (S) N
PubChem ,  (S)
ChemSpider  YesY,  (S) YesY
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Molecular formula C7H8FN3O4
Molar mass 217.15 g mol−1
log P -1.168
Acidity (pKa) 2.118
Basicity (pKb) 11.879
Isoelectric point 4.28
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 N   YesY/N?)

5-Fluorowillardiine is a selective agonist for the AMPA receptor,[1][2][3] with only limited effects at the kainate receptor.[4] It is an excitotoxic neurotoxin when used in vivo and so is rarely used in intact animals, but it is widely used to selectively stimulate AMPA receptors in vitro.[5][6][7]

5-Fluorowillardiine exists as two distinct isomers:

  • (2R) or D
  • (2S) or L


  1. ^ Patneau, DK; Mayer, ML; Jane, DE; Watkins, JC (1992). "Activation and Desensitization of AMPA / Kainate Receptors by Novel Derivatives of Willardiine". Journal of Neuroscience 12 (2): 595–606.  
  2. ^ Hawkins, LM; Beaver, KM; Jane, DE; Taylor, PM; Sunter, DC; Roberts, PJ (1995). H-5-fluorowillardiine binding in rat brain"3"Characterization of the pharmacology and regional distribution of (S)-.  
  3. ^ Lunn, ML; Ganakas, AM; Mercer, LD; Lawrence, AJ; Beart, PM (1996). "Localisation and properties of AMPA-insensitive kainate sites: receptor autoradiography and gene expression in rat brain". Neuroscience Letters 204 (1–2): 121–4.  
  4. ^ Larm, JA; Cheung, NS; Beart, PM (1996). "(S)-5-fluorowillardiine-mediated neurotoxicity in cultured murine cortical neurones occurs via AMPA and kainate receptors". European Journal of Pharmacology 314 (1–2): 249–54.  
  5. ^ Jensen, RJ (1999). "Responses of directionally selective retinal ganglion cells to activation of AMPA glutamate receptors". Visual Neuroscience 16 (2): 205–19.  
  6. ^ Olivera, S; Rodriguez-Ithurralde, D; Henley, JM (2001). H-5-fluorowillardiine binding to AMPA receptors in rat brain"3"Regional localization and developmental profile of acetylcholinesterase-evoked increases in . British Journal of Pharmacology 133 (7): 1055–62.  
  7. ^ Kessler, M; Arai, AC (2006). "Use of 3H fluorowillardiine to study properties of AMPA receptor allosteric modulators". Brain Research 1076 (1): 25–41.  
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