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Afonso II of Portugal

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Afonso II of Portugal

Afonso II redirects here. It may also refer to Afonso II of Kongo.
Afonso II
King Afonso in Compendio de crónicas de reyes (c. 1312-1325)
King of Portugal
Reign 26 March 1212 – 25 March 1223
Predecessor Sancho I
Successor Sancho II
Born 23 April 1185
Coimbra, Kingdom of Portugal
Died 25 March 1223 (aged 37)
Coimbra, Kingdom of Portugal
Burial Santa Cruz Monastery, Coimbra, District of Coimbra, Portugal
Consort Urraca of Castile
Issue
among others...
Sancho II
Afonso III
Leonor, Queen of Denmark
Fernando, Lord of Serpa
House House of Burgundy
Father Sancho I
Mother Dulce of Aragon
Religion Roman Catholicism

Afonso II (Portuguese pronunciation: ; English: Alphonzo), or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin version), nicknamed "the Fat" (Portuguese o Gordo), King of Portugal, was born in Coimbra on 23 April 1185 and died on 25 March 1223 in the same city. He was the second but eldest surviving son of Sancho I of Portugal by his wife, Dulce, Infanta of Aragon. Afonso succeeded his father in 1212.

Reign

A 17th century depiction of Afonso.

As a king, Afonso II set a different approach of government. Hitherto, his father Sancho I and his grandfather Afonso I were mostly concerned with military issues either against the neighbouring Kingdom of Castile or against the Moorish lands in the south. Afonso did not pursue territory enlargement policies and managed to insure peace with Castile during his reign. Despite this, some towns, like Alcácer do Sal in 1217, were conquered from the Moors by the private initiative of noblemen. This does not mean that he was a weak or somehow cowardly man. The first years of his reign were marked instead by internal disturbances between Afonso and his brothers and sisters. The king managed to keep security within Portuguese borders only by outlawing and exiling his kin.

Since military issues were not a government priority, Afonso established the state's administration and centralized power on himself. He designed the first set of Portuguese written laws. These were mainly concerned with private property, civil justice, and minting. Afonso also sent ambassadors to European kingdoms outside the Iberian Peninsula and began amicable commercial relations with most of them.

Other reforms included the always delicate matters with the pope. In order to get the independence of Portugal recognized by Rome, his grandfather, Afonso I, had to legislate an enormous number of privileges to the Church. These eventually created a state within the state. With Portugal's position as a country firmly established, Afonso II endeavoured to weaken the power of the clergy and to apply a portion of the enormous revenues of the Roman Catholic Church to purposes of national utility. These actions led to a serious diplomatic conflict between the pope and Portugal. After being excommunicated for his audacities by Pope Honorius III, Afonso II promised to make amends to the church, but he died in 1223 before making any serious attempts to do so.

Ancestry

Marriage and descendants

Afonso married Infanta Urraca of Castile, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Leonora of England, in 1206.

Name Birth Death Notes
By Urraca of Castile (1186–1220; married in 1206)
Infante Sancho 8 September 1207 4 January 1248 Succeeded him as Sancho II, 4th King of Portugal.
Infante Afonso 5 May 1210 16 February 1279 Succeeded his brother Sancho as Afonso III, 5th King of Portugal.
Infanta Leonor (Eleanor) 1211 1231 Married Valdemar the Young, son of Valdemar II of Denmark and Margaret of Bohemia, daughter of Ottokar I of Bohemia.
Infante Fernando a. 1217 c. 1243 Lord of Serpa.
Vicente de Portugal 1219  
João Afonso d. 9 October 1234 Illegitimate; buried in the Alcobaça monastery

References

  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain

External links

Afonso II of Portugal
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
Born: 23 April 1185 Died: 25 March 1223
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Sancho I
King of Portugal
1211–1223
Succeeded by
Sancho II
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