World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Agronomy

Article Id: WHEBN0000186725
Reproduction Date:

Title: Agronomy  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Model organism, Agriculture, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Augustin Pyramus de Candolle, Agricultural science
Collection: Agronomy
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Agronomy

Agronomist
An agronomist measures and records corn growth and other processes.
Occupation
Names agronomist
agricultural scientist
crop scientist
Occupation type
profession
Activity sectors
agriculture, agronomy
Description
Competencies technical knowledge, sense of analysis
Related jobs
see related disciplines

Agronomy - from Ancient Greek ἀγρός (agrós, "field") + νόμος (nómos, "law") - is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, fiber, and land reclamation. Agronomy has come to encompass work in the areas of plant genetics, plant physiology, meteorology, and soil science. Agronomy is the application of a combination of sciences like biology, chemistry, economics, ecology, earth science, and genetics. Agronomists as of 2015 are involved with many issues including producing food, creating healthier food, managing the environmental impact of agriculture, and extracting energy from plants.[1] Agronomists often specialise in areas such as crop rotation, irrigation and drainage, plant breeding, plant physiology, soil classification, soil fertility, weed control, and insect and pest control.

Contents

  • Plant breeding 1
  • Biotechnology 2
  • Soil science 3
    • Soil conservation 3.1
  • Agroecology 4
  • Theoretical modeling 5
  • Agronomy schools 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • Bibliography 9
  • External links 10

Plant breeding

An agronomist field sampling a trial plot of flax.

This area of agronomy involves selective breeding of plants to produce the best crops under various conditions. Plant breeding has increased crop yields and has improved the nutritional value of numerous crops, including corn, soybeans, and wheat. It has also led to the development of new types of plants. For example, a hybrid grain called triticale was produced by crossbreeding rye and wheat. Triticale contains more usable protein than does either rye or wheat. Agronomy has also been instrumental in fruit and vegetable production research.

Biotechnology

Indiana National Guard's Agribusiness Development Team at the Beck Agricultural Center in West Lafayette, Indiana
An agronomist mapping a plant genome

Agronomists use biotechnology to extend and expedite the development of desired characteristic.[2] Biotechnology is often a lab activity requiring field testing of the new crop varieties that are developed.

In addition to increasing crop yields agronomic biotechnology is increasingly being applied for novel uses other than food. For example, oilseed is at present used mainly for margarine and other food oils, but it can be modified to produce fatty acids for detergents, substitute fuels and petrochemicals.

Soil science

Agronomists study sustainable ways to make pH, and nutrient holding capacity (cation exchange capacity) are tested in a regional laboratory. Agronomists will interpret these lab reports and make recommendations to balance soil nutrients for optimal plant growth.[3]

Soil conservation

In addition, agronomists develop methods to preserve the soil and to decrease the effects of erosion by wind and water. For example, a technique called contour plowing may be used to prevent soil erosion and conserve rainfall. Researchers in agronomy also seek ways to use the soil more effectively in solving other problems. Such problems include the disposal of human and animal manure, water pollution, and pesticide build-up in the soil. Techniques include no-tilling crops, planting of soil-binding grasses along contours on steep slopes, and contour drains of depths up to 1 metre.

Agroecology

alternative food systems and the development of alternative cropping systems.

Theoretical modeling

Agronomy schools

Agronomy programs are offered at colleges, universities, and specialized agricultural schools. Agronomy programs often involve classes across a range of departments including agriculture, biology, chemistry, and physiology. They can usually take from four to twelve years. Many companies will pay an agronomist-in-training's way through college if they agree to work for them when they graduate.

See also

References

  1. ^ "I'm An Agronomist!". Imanagronomist.net. Retrieved 2013-05-02. 
  2. ^ "Georgetown International Environmental Law Review". Findarticles.com. Retrieved 2013-05-02. 
  3. ^ Hoeft, Robert G. (2000). Modern Corn and Soybean Production. MCSP Publications. pp. 107 to 171.  
  4. ^ "Iowa State University: Undergraduate Program - Agroecology". Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. 

Bibliography

  • Wendy B. Murphy, The Future World of Agriculture, Watts, 1984.
  • Antonio Saltini, Storia delle scienze agrarie, 4 vols, Bologna 1984-89, ISBN 88-206-2412-5, ISBN 88-206-2413-3, ISBN 88-206-2414-1, ISBN 88-206-2415-X

External links

  • The American Society of Agronomy (ASA)
  • Crop Science Society of America (CSSA)
  • Soil Science Society of America (SSSA)
  • European Society for Agronomy
  • The National Agricultural Library (NAL) – Comprehensive agricultural library.
  • Information System for Agriculture and Food Research
  • Agronomy | News | Tips | Recommendations | pests and diseases in agriculture
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.