World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0004283474
Reproduction Date:

Title: Al-Sarafand  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Al-Mazar, Haifa, Ayn Ghazal, Yasur, Gaza, Kafr Lam, List of Arab towns and villages depopulated during the 1948 Palestinian exodus
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


al-Sarafand is located in Mandatory Palestine
Arabic الصرفند
Name meaning from a personal name[1]
Also spelled Sarepta Yudee
Subdistrict Haifa
Population 290 (1945)
Area 5,409 dunams

5.4 km²

Date of depopulation 16 July 1948[2]
Cause(s) of depopulation Military assault by Yishuv forces
Secondary cause Influence of nearby town's fall
Current localities Tzrufa,[3]

Al-Sarafand (Arabic: الصرفند‎) was a Palestinian Arab village near the Mediterranean shore south of Haifa. In Ottoman tax records, it is shown that the village had a population of 61 inhabitants in 1596. According to a land and population survey by Sami Hadawi, al-Sarafand's population was 290 in 1945, entirely Muslim.[4]


Al-Sarafand was known to the Crusaders as Sarepta Yudee, but is not known when the village was founded, or how the name originated.[5] In the Crusader period a chapel and a fortress was built on the site.[6] The site was recaptured by Ayyubid forces in 1187-1188.[7] The village appears in the waqf of the tomb (turba) and madrasa of amir Qurqamaz in Egypt.[8]

From Ottoman records it is known that in 1596 Sarafand was a village in the nahiya ("subdistrict") of Shafa, ( liwa' ("district") of Lajjun), with a population of 61. Villagers paid taxes to the authorities for the crops that they cultivated, which included wheat, barley, summer crops such as corn, beans, melons, and vegetables, and raising goats.[5][9]

In 1859 the village of Sarafand was described as being situated on a ridge between a plain and the beach. Consul Rogers estimated that 150 people lived in it and cultivated 16 faddans.[10][11] Four years later, Guérin stated that the population size was 400.[12]

According to the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine, who visited in 1873; "North of this village there is a system of rock- cut tombs, sixteen in all. Eight have each three loculi under arcosolia, and in three cases the rolling stones which closed the doors lie beside them. One of these stones was 3 feet diameter, and 1 foot thick, weighing probably about 6 cwt. Five of the tombs are single loculi, open in front, cut in the face of the cliff under arcosolia; two of the tombs have only two loculi each, and one is blocked up. This group presents the best examples found by the Survey party of the rolling stone arrangement for a tomb door."[13]

The village economy depended on agriculture, animal husbandry and salt making. In 1944/45 a total of 3,244 dunums was allocated to cereals; 22 dunums were irrigated or used for orchards.[14]

1948, and aftermath

During the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the inhabitants fled in several stages. Most fled in early May towards al-Tira and when al-Tira was depopulated they left for Jenin. Some returned and remained in al-Sarafand until Israeli forces — composed of the Carmeli and Alexandroni Brigades — assaulted the village on July 16, 1948. At the time, Arab Liberation Army volunteers and local militia were defending al-Sarafand.[15] Most of the inhabitants fled to the southeast line of Wadi Ara, where the Iraqi Army was stationed. Later, they crossed the Jordan River, and since then the majority of al-Sarafand’s refugees have been living in Jordan. Only one former resident of al-Sarafand remained in Israel. The village houses were not immediately demolished by the Israelis and remained empty for many years. When they were eventually destroyed, the mosque was the only building spared.[5]

Petersen inspected the village mosque and adjacent vaults in 1994, and described the mosque as "a tall rectangular box-like building standing on a terrace near the top of the ridge on which it was built. The mosque is entered through a doorway in the middle of the north wall. The interior is divided into two long cross-vaulted bays resting on six large piers. There are four windows in west wall facing the sea. The mihrab is placed in the centre of the south wall and can be seen on the exterior as a rectangular projection. To the west of the mihrab are the remains of a minbar (now destroyed). The lower sections of the wall are approximately 1 m. thick, whilst the upper part of the south and north walls are considerably thinner (0.3 m.). Although the present building does not appear to be very old (late nineteenth or early twentieth centuries) it does appear to in incorporate an earlier structure which is visible in the exterior walls. To the south of the mosque is a rectangular area of ruins (approximately 30m x 40m) containing several barrel-vaulted chambers. Three of these are still accessible; one on the north side nearest the mosque, and two on the south side next to the quarry cliff. Each vault is about 7m long; one is 2.52m wide and the other is 3.52m wide. More intensive investigation could reveal a basic plan of this structure."[16]

Mosque restoration

In 1999, the 'Aqsa Society for the Preservation of Islamic Holy Sites decided to restore al-Sarafand’s Jewish attempts to stop them, as an example of the 'shifting of dynamics' of the relationship between Muslims and the Israeli authorities.

See also


  1. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 141
  2. ^ Morris, 2004, p. xviii, village #174. Also gives causes of depopulation
  3. ^ Morris, 2004, p. xxii, settlement #124, 1949
  4. ^ Hadawi, 1970, p. 49
  5. ^ a b c d Efrat Ben-Ze'ev and Issam Aburaiya (2004). ""Middle-ground" politics and the re-Palestinization of places in Israel". International Journal of Middle East Studies 36: 639–655. 
  6. ^ Guérin, Galilée, II, 478-481. Cited in Petersen, 2001, p. 272
  7. ^ Abu Shama RHC (or.), IV, 303. Cited in Petersen, 2001, p. 272
  8. ^ MPF, 11 No. 31. Cited in Petersen, 2001, p. 272
  9. ^ Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 158. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p.188
  10. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 4. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p. 188
  11. ^ Cited in Petersen, 2001, pp. 272-3.
  12. ^ Guérin, 1880, p.481, Cited in Petersen, 2001, p. 273.
  13. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 33
  14. ^ Khalidi, 1992, p. 188
  15. ^ Morris, 2004, p. ?
  16. ^ Petersen, 2001, pp. 272-273


External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.