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Allium tuberosum

Allium tuberosum
garlic chives
Flowering garlic chives
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Allioideae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. tuberosum
Binomial name
Allium tuberosum
Rottler ex Spreng. 1825 not Roxb. 1832[1][2]
Synonyms[1][3]

Allium tuberosum (garlic chives, oriental garlic, Asian chives, Chinese chives, Chinese leek[4]) is an Asian species of onion native to the Himalayas (Nepal, Bhutan, India) and to the Chinese Province of Shanxi. It is cultivated in many places and naturalized in scattered locations around the world.[1][5]

Contents

  • Description 1
  • Taxonomy 2
  • Distribution and habitat 3
  • Ecology 4
  • Cultivation 5
  • Uses 6
  • Gallery 7
  • References 8
  • Bibliography 9

Description

Allium tuberosum is a [4])

Taxonomy

Originally described by Johan Peter Rottler, the species name was validly published by Curt Polycarp Joachim Sprengel in 1825.[2] Allium tuberosum is classified within Allium in subgenus Butomissa (Salisb.) N. Friesen, section Butomissa (Salisb.) Kamelin, a very small group consisting of only A. tuberosum and A. ramosum L.,[9][10] which have been variously regarded as either one or two genetic entities.[11]

Distribution and habitat

Originating in the Siberian–Mongolian–North Chinese steppes,[9] but widely cultivated and naturalised. Allium tuberosum is currently reported to be found growing wild in scattered locations in the United States. (Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, Nebraska, Alabama, Iowa, Arkansas, Nebraska and Wisconsin)[12][13][14] However, it is believed to be more widespread in North America because of availability of seeds and seedlings of this species as an exotic herb and because of its high aggressiveness. This species is also widespread across much of mainland Europe[15] and invasive in other areas of the world.[16]

Ecology

A late summer to autumnal blooming plant,[4] Allium tuberosum is one of several Allium species known as wild onion and/or wild garlic that in various parts of the world, such as Australia, are listed as noxious weeds[12] or as invasive "serious high impact environmental and / or agricultural weeds that spread rapidly and often create monocultures".[16]

Cultivation

Often grown as an ornamental plant in gardens, several cultivars are available. A. tuberosum is distinctive by blooming later than most native or naturalised species of Allium.[13] It is hardy (USDA) to zones 4–8.[8]

A number of varieties have been developed for either improved leaf (e.g. 'Shiva') or flower stem (e.g. 'Nien Hua') production.[17] While the emphasis in Asia the emphasis has been primarily culinary, in North America the interest has been more as an ornamental.[18] 'Monstrosum' is a giant ornamental cultivar.[19]

Uses

Uses have included ornamental plants, including cut and dried flowers, culinary herb, and traditional medicine. Garlic chives have been widely cultivated for centuries for its culinary value. The flat leaves, the stalks and immature, unopened flower buds are used as flavouring.[20] Another form is "blanched" by regrowing after cutting under cover to produce white-yellow leaves and a subtler flavor.[21]

In East Asia (as Nira, Japanese 韮, or "green nira grass") and Central Asia (as Djusai) A. tuberosum is used for both garlic and sweet flavours, in soups and salads and traditional Japanese and Chinese dishes. Chinese names for A. tuberosum (韭菜) vary depending on the plant part as well as between Mandarin Chinese and Cantonese, as well as varying romanizations.[11][20] For instance the green leaves are Jiu cai, the flower stem Jiu cai hua and blanched leaves Jiu huang in Mandarin, but Gau tsoi (Kow choi), Gau tsoi fa and Gau wong in Cantonese respectively.[22] Other renderings include cuchay, kucai, kuchay, or kutsay.

The leaves are used as a flavoring in a similar way to chives, scallions or garlic and are included as a stir fry ingredient. In China, they are often used to make dumplings with a combination of egg, shrimp and pork. They are a common ingredient in Chinese jiaozi dumplings and the Japanese and Korean equivalents. Garlic chives are widely used in Korean cuisine, where it is known as buchu ( Korean 부추), most notably in dishes such as buchukimchi (부추김치, garlic chive kimchi), buchujeon (부추전, garlic chive pancakes), or jaecheopguk (a guk, or clear soup, made with garlic chives and Asian clams).[23] A Chinese flatbread similar to the scallion pancake may be made with garlic chives instead of scallions; such a pancake is called a jiucai bing (韭菜饼) or jiucai you bing (韭菜油饼). Garlic chives are also one of the main ingredients used with Yi mein (E-Fu) dishes.[24] In Nepal, cooks fry a curried vegetable dish of potatoes and A. tuberosum known as dunduko sag.[25] In Vietnam, the leaves of garlic chives (Hẹ) are cut up into short pieces and used as the only vegetable in a broth with sliced pork kidneys.[26] In Manipur and other northeastern states of India, it is grown and used as a substitute to garlic and onion in cooking and is known as maroi nakupi.

Gallery

References

  1. ^ a b c WCSPF 2015.
  2. ^ a b Linnaeus 1825.
  3. ^ TPL 2013.
  4. ^ a b c PFAF 2012, Allium tuberosum - Rottler. ex Spreng..
  5. ^ FOC 2015.
  6. ^ RHS 2015.
  7. ^ a b McGee & Stuckey 2002.
  8. ^ a b Floridata 2015, 12 December 2003Allium tuberosumSteve Christman. .
  9. ^ a b Friesen, Fritsch & Blattner 2006.
  10. ^ Li et al. 2010.
  11. ^ a b Fritsch & Friesen 2003.
  12. ^ a b USDA 2015.
  13. ^ a b Hilty 2015.
  14. ^ BONAP 2014.
  15. ^ Flora Italia 2014.
  16. ^ a b Randall 2007.
  17. ^ Larkcom & Douglass 2008, p. 80.
  18. ^ Mahr 2010.
  19. ^ Staudengärtnerei 2015.
  20. ^ a b Larkcom & Douglass 2008, p. 75.
  21. ^ Larkcom & Douglass 2008, p. 78.
  22. ^ Norrington-Davies 2006.
  23. ^ Maangchi 2008.
  24. ^ Goh 2015.
  25. ^ Majupuria 1993.
  26. ^ Vietamese herbs 2015.

Bibliography

Books and monographs

  • Linnaeus, Carl (1825). Sprengel, Curt Polycarp Joachim, ed. Systema Vegetabilium vol. ii (16th ed.).  
  • Block, Eric (2009). Garlic and other alliums : the lore and the science. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.  
  • Brewster, James L. (2008). "Chinese chives, Allium tuberosum Rottl.". Onions and other vegetable alliums (2nd ed.). Wallingford, UK: CABI. p. 20.  
  • Kays, Stanley J. (2011). "7.13 Allium tuberosum". Cultivated vegetables of the world: a multilingual onomasticon. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic. p. 33.  
  • Larkcom, Joy; Douglass, Elizabeth (2008). Oriental vegetables : the complete guide for the gardening cook (2nd ed.). New York: Kodansha International.  
  • Majupuria, Indra (1993). Joys of Nepalese cooking : a most comprehensive and practical book on Nepalese cookery : 371 easy-to-make, kitchen-tested recipes. Lashkar (Gwalior), India: S. Devi.  
  • McGee, Rose Marie Nichols; Stuckey, Maggie (2002). The Bountiful Container. Workman Publishing.  
  • Rabinowitch, H. D.; Currah, L. (2002). Allium Crop Sciences: Recent Advances. CABI Publishing.  
  • Randall, RP (2007). The introduced flora of Australia and its weed status (PDF). Australian Weed Management, University of Adelaide.  
  • Zeder, Melinda A.; Bradley, Daniel G; Emshwiller, Eve; Smith, Bruce D, eds. (2006). Documenting domestication: new genetic and archaeological paradigms. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press.  

Articles and chapters

  • Friesen, N; Fritsch, RM; Blattner, Frank R (2006). (Alliaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences"Allium"Phylogeny and new intrageneric classification of (PDF). Aliso 22: 372–395. Retrieved 13 October 2015. 
  • Li, Q.-Q.; Zhou, S.-D.; He, X.-J.; Yu, Y.; Zhang, Y.-C.; Wei, X.-Q. (21 October 2010). "Phylogeny and biogeography of Allium (Amaryllidaceae: Allieae) based on nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and chloroplast rps16 sequences, focusing on the inclusion of species endemic to China". Annals of Botany 106 (5): 709–733.  
  • Oyuntsetseg, B; Blattner, F. R.; Friesen, N. (2012). ?"A. tuberosum from East Mongolia: A missing link for the origin of the crop species Allium ramosum"Diploid . Erforsch. biol. Ress. Mongolei (Halle/Saale) 12: 415–424. 
  • Saini, N; Wadhwa, S; Singh, G. K. (2013). )"Allium tuberosum) and wild garlic (Allium sativum"Comparative study between cultivated garlic (. Global R Trad Rep 1 (1): 12–24. 
  • Blattner, Frank R; Friesen, N. as assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) A. ramosum ) and its putative progenitorAllium tuberosumRelationship between Chinese chive (. Retrieved 14 October 2015.  in Zeder et al (2006, Chapter 10. pp. 134–142)
  • Fritsch, RM; Friesen, N. Evolution, domestication and taxonomy. , in Rabinowitch & Currah (2003, pp. 5–30)

Websites

  • "Allium tuberosum", World Checklist of Selected Plant Families,  
  • "The Plant List: A Working List of all Plant Species v. 1.1". 2013. 
  • "Allium tuberosum"USDA PLANTS database. . 
  • "32. Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Sprengel, Syst. Veg. 2: 38. 1825. 韭 jiu". Vol. 24 p. 179. Flora of China. Retrieved 14 October 2015. 
  • "Floridata". Floridata Plant Encyclopedia. 2015. 
  • "Plants For A Future". Retrieved 6 October 2015. 
  • RHS (2015). "Allium tuberosum (Chinese chives)".  
  • Rottl. ex Spreng.Allium tuberosum Medicinal Plant Images Database (School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University) (traditional Chinese) (English)
  • Hilty, John (2015). "Garlic chives". Illinois Wildflowers. Retrieved 14 October 2015. 
  • "Allium tuberosum". Kwantlen Polytechnic University: School of Horticulture. 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2015. 
  • "Allium tuberosum". BONAP's North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). The Biota of North America Program North American Vascular Flora. 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2015. 
  • "Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng.". Schede di botanica. Flora Italiana. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2015. 
  • Norrington-Davies, Tom (8 April 2006). "Spring it on them".  
  • Maangchi (26 February 2008). "Asian chives". Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  • "Chinese Chives - Hẹ". Vietnamese Herbs. 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  • Goh, Kenneth (30 March 2015). "Shredded Chicken Braised E-Fu Noodles (鸡丝韭黄伊府面)". Guai Shu Shu. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  • Mahr, Susan (30 August 2010). "Garlic Chives, Allium tuberosum". University of Wisconsin Extension Master Gardener Program. Retrieved 19 October 2015. 
  • "Allium tuberosum". Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 19 October 2015. 
  • Miller, Sally G (14 June 2014). "Garlic Chives- Great In the Garden, But...". Dave's Garden. Retrieved 19 October 2015. 
  • "Allium tuberosum". Hortipedia. Retrieved 19 October 2015. 
  • "'"Allium tuberosum 'Monstrosum. Staudengärtnerei Gaißmayer. 2015. Retrieved 19 October 2015. 
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