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Amartya Sen

Amartya Sen
Official Portrait at the Nobel Prize
Native name অমর্ত্য সেন
Born (1933-11-03) 3 November 1933
Manikganj, British India (present-day Bangladesh)
Nationality Indian
Institution
Field Welfare economics, development economics, ethics
School/tradition Capability Approach
Alma mater Presidency College of the University of Calcutta (B.A.),
Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A., M.A., Ph.D.)
Influences
Influenced
Contributions Human development theory
Awards Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (1998)
Bharat Ratna (1999)
National Humanities Medal (2012)[3]
from the BBC programme Start the Week, 7 January 2013

Information at IDEAS/RePEc

Amartya Kumar Sen (Bengali: অমর্ত্য সেন; born 3 November 1933) is an Indian economist and philosopher who since 1972 has taught and worked in the United Kingdom and the United States. He has made contributions to welfare economics, social choice theory, economic and social justice, economic theories of famines, and indexes of the measure of well-being of citizens of developing countries. He was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1998 for his work in welfare economics.

He is currently the Thomas W. Lamont University Professor and Professor of Economics and Philosophy at Harvard University. He serves as the chancellor of Nalanda University. He is also a senior fellow at the Harvard Society of Fellows, a distinguished fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, an honorary fellow of Darwin College, Cambridge and a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, where he served as Master from 1998 to 2004.[4] He is also known for being one of the strongest champions of rationalism, secularism, and egalitarianism in India, and has condemned the ghettoization of Ambedkar as a Dalit leader.

Contents

  • Early life and education 1
  • Professorships 2
  • Membership and associations 3
  • Research 4
  • Perceptions: in comparisons 5
  • India: university mentor for growth and revival 6
    • Nalanda International University Project 6.1
  • Media and culture 7
  • Personal life and beliefs 8
  • Academic achievements, awards and honours 9
  • Bibliography 10
    • Books 10.1
    • Chapters in books 10.2
    • 10.3 Journal articles
    • Lecture transcripts 10.4
    • Papers 10.5
    • Other 10.6
  • See also 11
  • References 12
  • Further reading 13
  • External links 14

Early life and education

Sen was born in Santiniketan, West Bengal, India, to Ashutosh Sen and Amita Sen. Rabindranath Tagore gave Amartya Sen his name (Bengali অমর্ত্য ômorto, lit. "immortal"). Sen's family was from Wari and Manikganj, Dhaka, both in present-day Bangladesh. His father Ashutosh Sen was a professor of chemistry at Dhaka University who moved with his family to West Bengal in 1945 and worked at various government institutions, including the West Bengal Public Service Commission (of which he was the chairman), and the Union Public Service Commission. Sen's mother Amita Sen was the daughter of Kshiti Mohan Sen, a well-known scholar of ancient and medieval India and close associate of Rabindranath Tagore. He served as the Vice Chancellor of Visva-Bharati University for some years.

Sen began his high-school education at St Gregory's School in Dhaka in 1940. From fall 1941, Sen studied at Visva-Bharati University school. He later went to Presidency College, Kolkata, where earned a B.A. in Economics, with a minor in Mathematics. In 1953, he moved to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he earned a second B.A. in Economics in 1955. He was elected President of the Cambridge Majlis. While Sen was officially a Ph.D. student at Cambridge (though he had finished his research in 1955-6), he was offered the position of Professor and Head of the Economics Department of the newly created Jadavpur University in Calcutta. He served in that position, starting the new Economics Department, during 1956 to 1958.

Meanwhile, Sen was elected to a Prize Fellowship at Trinity College, which gave him four years of freedom to do anything he liked; he made the radical decision to study philosophy. That proved to be of immense help to his later research. Sen explained: "The broadening of my studies into philosophy was important for me not just because some of my main areas of interest in economics relate quite closely to philosophical disciplines (for example, social choice theory makes intense use of mathematical logic and also draws on moral philosophy, and so does the study of inequality and deprivation), but also because I found philosophical studies very rewarding on their own".[5] His interest in philosophy, however, dates back to his college days at Presidency, where he read books on philosophy and debated philosophical themes.

To Sen, Cambridge was like a battlefield. There were major debates between supporters of Keynesian economics on the one hand, and the "neo-classical" economists skeptical of Keynes, on the other. Sen was lucky to have close relations with economists on both sides of the divide. Meanwhile, thanks to its good "practice" of democratic and tolerant social choice, Sen's own college, Trinity College, was somewhat removed from the discord. However, because of a lack of enthusiasm for social choice theory in both Trinity and Cambridge, Sen had to choose a different subject for his Ph.D. thesis, which was on "The Choice of Techniques" in 1959, though the work had been completed much earlier (except for some valuable advice from his adjunct supervisor in India, Professor A. K. Dasgupta, given to Sen while teaching and revising his work at Jadavpur) under the supervision of the "brilliant but vigorously intolerant" post-Keynesian, Joan Robinson.[6] Quentin Skinner notes that Sen was a member of the secret society Cambridge Apostles during his time at Cambridge.[7]

Professorships

Between 1960 and 1961, Sen was a visiting Professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the United States, where he got to know Paul Samuelson, Robert Solow, Franco Modigliani, and Norbert Wiener.[8] He was also a visiting Professor at UC-Berkeley and Cornell. He taught as Professor of Economics between 1963 and 1971 at the Delhi School of Economics (where he completed his magnum opus Collective Choice and Social Welfare by 1969),.[9] This is a period considered to be a Golden Period in the history of DSE. In 1972, he joined the London School of Economics as a Professor of Economics where he taught until 1977. From 1977 to 1986 he taught at the University of Oxford, where he was first a Professor of Economics and Fellow of Nuffield College, and then the Drummond Professor of Political Economy and a Fellow of All Souls College from 1980. In 1987, he joined Harvard as the Thomas W. Lamont University Professor of Economics. In 1998 he was appointed as Master of Trinity College, Cambridge.[4] In January 2004, Sen returned to Harvard. He also established the Eva Colorni Trust at the former London Guildhall University in the name of his deceased wife.

Membership and associations

He has served as president of the Econometric Society (1984), the International Economic Association (1986–1989), the Indian Economic Association (1989) and the American Economic Association (1994). He has also served as President of the Development Studies Association and the Human Development and Capabilities Association.

He serves as the Chair of the International Advisory Board of the Center for Human and Economic Development Studies at Peking University in China.[10]

Research

Sen's papers in the late 1960s and early 1970s helped develop the theory of social choice, which first came to prominence in the work by the American economist Kenneth Arrow, who, while working at the RAND Corporation, had most famously shown that all voting rules, be they majority rule or two thirds-majority or status quo, must inevitably conflict with some basic democratic norm. Sen's contribution to the literature was to show under what conditions Arrow's impossibility theorem[11] would indeed come to pass as well as to extend and enrich the theory of social choice, informed by his interests in history of economic thought and philosophy.

In 1981, Sen published Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation (1981), a book in which he argued that famine occurs not only from a lack of food, but from inequalities built into mechanisms for distributing food. Sen also argued that the Bengal famine was caused by an urban economic boom that raised food prices, thereby causing millions of rural workers to starve to death when their wages did not keep up.[12]

Sen's interest in famine stemmed from personal experience. As a nine-year-old boy, he witnessed the Bengal famine of 1943, in which three million people perished. This staggering loss of life was unnecessary, Sen later concluded. He presents data that there was an adequate food supply in Bengal at the time, but particular groups of people including rural landless labourers and urban service providers like haircutters did not have the means to buy food as its price rose rapidly due to factors that include British military acquisition, panic buying, hoarding, and price gouging, all connected to the war in the region. In Poverty and Famines, Sen revealed that in many cases of famine, food supplies were not significantly reduced. In Bengal, for example, food production, while down on the previous year, was higher than in previous non-famine years. Thus, Sen points to a number of social and economic factors, such as declining wages, unemployment, rising food prices, and poor food-distribution, which led to starvation. His capabilities approach focuses on positive freedom, a person's actual ability to be or do something, rather than on negative freedom approaches, which are common in economics and simply focuses on non-interference. In the Bengal famine, rural laborers' negative freedom to buy food was not affected. However, they still starved because they were not positively free to do anything, they did not have the functioning of nourishment, nor the capability to escape morbidity.

In addition to his important work on the causes of famines, Sen's work in the field of development economics has had considerable influence in the formulation of the "Human Development Report",[13] published by the United Nations Development Programme.[14] This annual publication that ranks countries on a variety of economic and social indicators owes much to the contributions by Sen among other social choice theorists in the area of economic measurement of poverty and inequality.

Sen's revolutionary contribution to development economics and social indicators is the concept of "capability" developed in his article "Equality of What".[15] He argues that governments should be measured against the concrete capabilities of their citizens. This is because top-down development will always trump human rights as long as the definition of terms remains in doubt (is a "right" something that must be provided or something that simply cannot be taken away?). For instance, in the United States citizens have a hypothetical "right" to vote. To Sen, this concept is fairly empty. In order for citizens to have a capacity to vote, they first must have "functionings". These "functionings" can range from the very broad, such as the availability of education, to the very specific, such as transportation to the polls. Only when such barriers are removed can the citizen truly be said to act out of personal choice. It is up to the individual society to make the list of minimum capabilities guaranteed by that society. For an example of the "capabilities approach" in practice, see Martha Nussbaum's Women and Human Development.[16]

He wrote a controversial article in The New York Review of Books entitled "More Than 100 Million Women Are Missing" (see Missing women of Asia), analyzing the mortality impact of unequal rights between the genders in the developing world, particularly Asia. Other studies, including one by Emily Oster, had argued that this is an overestimation, though Oster has since then recanted her conclusions.[17]

Welfare economics seeks to evaluate economic policies in terms of their effects on the well-being of the community. Sen, who devoted his career to such issues, was called the "conscience of his profession". His influential monograph Collective Choice and Social Welfare (1970), which addressed problems related to individual rights (including formulation of the liberal paradox), justice and equity, majority rule, and the availability of information about individual conditions, inspired researchers to turn their attention to issues of basic welfare. Sen devised methods of measuring poverty that yielded useful information for improving economic conditions for the poor. For instance, his theoretical work on inequality provided an explanation for why there are fewer women than men in India[18] and China despite the fact that in the West and in poor but medically unbiased countries, women have lower mortality rates at all ages, live longer, and make a slight majority of the population. Sen claimed that this skewed ratio results from the better health treatment and childhood opportunities afforded boys in those countries, as well as sex-selective abortions.

Governments and international organizations handling food crises were influenced by Sen's work. His views encouraged policy makers to pay attention not only to alleviating immediate suffering but also to finding ways to replace the lost income of the poor—for example through public works—and to maintain stable prices for food. A vigorous defender of political freedom, Sen believed that famines do not occur in functioning democracies because their leaders must be more responsive to the demands of the citizens. In order for economic growth to be achieved, he argued, social reforms—such as improvements in education and public health—must precede economic reform.

In 2009, Sen published a new book called The Idea of Justice.[1] Based on his previous work in welfare economics and social choice theory, but also on his philosophical thoughts, he presented his own theory of justice that he meant to be an alternative to the influential modern theories of justice of John Rawls or John Harsanyi. In opposition to Rawls but also earlier justice theoreticians Immanuel Kant, Jean-Jacques Rousseau or David Hume, and inspired by the philosophical works of Adam Smith and Mary Wollstonecraft, Sen developed a theory that is both comparative and realizations-oriented (instead of being transcendental and institutional). However, he still regards institutions and processes as being important. As an alternative to Rawls's veil of ignorance, Sen chose the thought experiment of an impartial spectator as the basis of his theory of justice. He also stressed the importance of public discussion (understanding democracy in the sense of John Stuart Mill) and a focus on people's capabilities (an approach that he had co-developed), including the notion of universal human rights, in evaluating various states with regard to justice.

Perceptions: in comparisons

Sen has been called "the Conscience of the profession" and "the Mother Teresa of Economics"[19][20] for his work on famine, human development theory, welfare economics, the underlying mechanisms of poverty, gender inequality, and political liberalism. However, he denies the comparison to Mother Teresa, saying that he has never tried to follow a lifestyle of dedicated self-sacrifice.[21]

Amartya Sen also added his voice to the campaign against the anti-gay Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code.[22]

India: university mentor for growth and revival

Nalanda International University Project

In May 2007, he was appointed as chairman[23] of Nalanda Mentor Group to examine the framework of international cooperation, and proposed structure of partnership, which would govern the establishment of Nalanda International University Project as an international centre of education seeking to revive the ancient center of higher learning which was present in India from the 5th century to 1197.

On 19 July 2012, Sen was named the first chancellor of the proposed Nalanda University (NU).[24] Teaching began in August 2014.

Media and culture

A 57-minute documentary named Amartya Sen: A Life Re-examined directed by Suman Ghosh details his life and work.[25][26]

A 2001 portrait of Sen by Annabel Cullen is in Trinity College's collection.[27] A 2003 portrait of Sen hangs in the National Portrait Gallery in London.[28]

Personal life and beliefs

Sen has been married three times. His first wife was Emma Georgina Rothschild, who serves as the Jeremy and Jane Knowles Professor of History at Harvard University.

The Sens have a house in Cambridge, Massachusetts, which is the base from which they teach during the academic year. They also have a home in Cambridge, England, where Sen is a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Rothschild is a Fellow of Magdalene College. He usually spends his winter holidays at his home in Santiniketan in West Bengal, India, where he used to go on long bike rides until recently. Asked how he relaxes, he replies: "I read a lot and like arguing with people."[19]

Sen is an atheist and holds that this can be associated with Hinduism of the atheist schools, like Lokayata.[29][30][31] In an interview for the magazine California, which is published by the University of California, Berkeley, he noted:[32]

Academic achievements, awards and honours

Sen has received over 90 honorary degrees from universities around the world.[33]

Bibliography

Books

  • Sen, Amartya (1960). Choice of Techniques: An Aspect of the Theory of Planned Economic Development. Oxford: Basil Blackford. 
  • Sen, Amartya (1997). On Economic Inequality (expanded ed.). Oxford New York: Clarendon Press Oxford University Press.   First published in 1976.
  • Sen, Amartya (1982). Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Oxford New York: Clarendon Press Oxford University Press.  
  • Sen, Amartya (1983). Choice, Welfare, and Measurement. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.  
Reprinted as: Sen, Amartya (1999). Choice, Welfare, and Measurement. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.  
Reviewed in the Social Scientist: Sanyal, Amal (October 1983). Choice, welfare and measurement" by Amartya Sen""". Social Scientist (JSTOR) 11 (10): 49–56.  
  • Sen, Amartya (1970). Collective Choice and Social Welfare (1st ed.). San Francisco, Calif.: Holden-Day.  
Reprinted as: Sen, Amartya (1984). Collective Choice and Social Welfare (2nd ed.). New York, NY: North-Holland Sole distributors for the U.S.A. and Canada, Elsevier Science Publishing Co.  
  • Sen, Amartya (1997). Resources, Values, and Development. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.  
  • Sen, Amartya (1985). Commodities and Capabilities (1st ed.). New York, NY: North-Holland Sole distributors for the U.S.A. and Canada, Elsevier Science Publishing Co.  
Reprinted as: Sen, Amartya (1999). Commodities and Capabilities (2nd ed.). Delhi New York: Oxford University Press.   Reviewed in The Economic Journal.[38]
  • Sen, Amartya (1987). On Ethics and Economics. New York, NY: Basil Blackwell.  
  • Sen, Amartya;  
  • Sen, Amartya (1992). Inequality Reexamined. New York Oxford New York: Russell Sage Foundation Clarendon Press Oxford University Press.  
Also printed as: Sen, Amartya (November 2003). "Inequality Reexamined". Oxford Scholarship Online (Oxford University Press).  
Extract 1. (Via Ian Stoner, lecturer, Department of Philosophy, University of Minnesota, readings.)
Extract 2.
  • Sen, Amartya;  
  • Sen, Amartya;  
  • Sen, Amartya;  
  • Sen, Amartya (1999).  
Review in Asia Times.[39]
  • Sen, Amartya (2000). Freedom, Rationality, and Social Choice: The Arrow Lectures and Other Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  
  • Sen, Amartya (2002). Rationality and Freedom. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.  
Preview.
  • Sen, Amartya;  
Chapter-preview links - 1.
Chapter-preview links - 2.
  • Sen, Amartya (2005). The Argumentative Indian: Writings on Indian History, Culture, and Identity. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.  
Review The Guardian.[40]
Review The Washington Post.[41]
  • Sen, Amartya (2006). Identity and Violence: The Illusion of Destiny. Issues of our time. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.  
  • Sen, Amartya (31 December 2007). Imperial Illusions. Washington D.C. / Online:  
Extract: "Imperial illusions: India, Britain, and the wrong lessons."
  • Sen, Amartya (2010). The Idea of Justice. London: Penguin.  
Preview.
  • Sen, Amartya;  
  • Sen, Amartya (2011). Peace and Democratic Society. Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers.  
  • Drèze, Jean (2013). An Uncertain Glory: The Contradictions of Modern India. London: Allen Lane.  

Chapters in books

  • Sen, Amartya (1980), "Equality of what? (lecture delivered at Stanford University, 22 May 1979)", in MacMurrin, Sterling M., The Tanner lectures on human values 1 (1st ed.), Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press,  
Reprinted as: Sen, Amartya (2010), "Equality of what?", in MacMurrin, Sterling M., The Tanner lectures on human values 4 (2nd ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 195–220,  
Pdf version.
  • Sen, Amartya (1988), "The concept of development", in  
  • Sen, Amartya (2004), "Capability and well-being", in  
  • Sen, Amartya (2004), "Development as capability expansion", in  
Reprinted in Sen, Amartya (2012), "Development as capability expansion", in  

Journal articles

  • Sen, Amartya (1962). "An aspect of Indian agriculture". Economic and Political Weekly (formerly The Economic Weekly) (Sameeksha Trust) 14: 243–246.  Pdf version.
  • Sen, Amartya (Jan–Feb 1970). "The impossibility of a paretian liberal". Journal of Political Economy (The University of Chicago Press - JSTOR) 78 (1): 152–157.   Pdf version.
  • Sen, Amartya (March 1976). "Poverty: an ordinal approach to measurement". Econometrica (The Econometric Society - JSTOR) 44 (2): 219–231.   Pdf verson.
  • Sen, Amartya (September 1979). "Utilitarianism and welfarism". The Journal of Philosophy (Journal of Philosophy, Inc. - JSTOR) 76 (9): 463–489.  
  • Sen, Amartya (1986). "Chapter 22 Social choice theory". Handbook of Mathematical Economics (Elsevier ScienceDirect) 3: 1073–1181.  
  • Sen, Amartya (20 December 1990). "More than 100 million women are missing". The New York Review of Books (NY Rev Inc.). 
  • Sen, Amartya (May 2005). "The three R's of reform". Economic and Political Weekly (Sameeksha Trust) 40 (19): 1971–1974. 

Lecture transcripts

  • Sen, Amartya (8 December 1998), The possibility of social choice, Trinity College, Cambridge, UK (Nobel lecture), Sweden: Nobel Media AB (Nobel Prize). 
  • Sen, Amartya (1999), Reason before identity, Oxford New York: Oxford University Press,  
News coverage of the 1998 Romanes Lecture in the Oxford University Gazette.[42]

Papers

  • Sen, Amartya (February 1986), Food, economics and entitlements (wider working paper 1), 1986/01, Helsinki: UNU-WIDER. 

Other

  • Other Publications on Google Scholar.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Sen, Amartya (2010). The idea of justice. London: Penguin.  
  2. ^  
  3. ^ "President Obama Awards 2011 National Humanities Medals".  
  4. ^ a b "Prof. Amartya Sen". Trinity College, Cambridge. University of Cambridge. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  5. ^ "Amartya Sen – Biographical: Philosophy and economics". The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1998. Nobel Prize. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  6. ^ "Amartya Sen – Biographical: Cambridge as a battleground". The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1998. Nobel Prize. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  7. ^ Professor Quentin Skinner and Alan Macfarlane (2 June 2008). Interview of Professor Quentin Skinner  – part 2 (Video). Cambridge: YouTube. 57:55 minutes in. 
  8. ^ "Amartya Sen | Biographical: opening paragraph". The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1998. Nobel Prize. Retrieved 12 June 2012. 
  9. ^ "Amartya Sen | Biographical: Delhi School of Economics". The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1998. Nobel Prize. Retrieved 12 June 2012. 
  10. ^ "People: Key committees 1. | Academic Advisory Committee, Honorary Director: Amartya Sen". Center for Human and Economic Development Studies (CHEDS), Peking University. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  11. ^ Benicourt, Emmanuelle (1 September 2002). "Is Amartya Sen a post-autistic economist?". Post-Autistic Economics Review (Post-Autistic Economics | PAECON) (15): article 4. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  12. ^  
  13. ^   Pdf version.
  14. ^ Batterbury, Simon; Fernando, Jude (2004), "Amartya Sen", in Hubbard, Phil; Valentine, Gill, Key thinkers on space and place, London Thousand Oaks: Sage, pp. 251–257,   Draft pdf.
  15. ^ Sen, Amartya (2010), "Equality of what?", in MacMurrin, Sterling M., The Tanner lectures on human values 4 (2nd ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 195–220,   Pdf version.
  16. ^  
  17. ^   Pdf version.
  18. ^ Sen, Amartya (27 October – 9 November 2001). "Many Faces of Gender Inequality". Frontline (The Hindu) 18 (22). 
  19. ^ a b c d  
  20. ^ Coy, Peter (25 October 1998). "Commentary: The Mother Teresa of economics". New York: Businessweek. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  21. ^ Bill, Dunlop (31 August 2010). "Book Festival: Amartya Sen, Nobel prize-winning welfare economist". Edinburgh: Edinburgh Guide. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  22. ^ Ramesh, Randeep (18 September 2006). "India's literary elite call for anti-gay law to be scrapped". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  23. ^ "Ministry of External Affairs, Press Release: Nalanda University Bill". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 11 August 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2012. The University of Nalanda is proposed to be established under the aegis of the East Asia Summit (EAS), as a regional initiative. Government of India constituted a Nalanda Mentor Group (NMG) in 2007, under the Chairmanship of Prof. Amartya Sen... 
  24. ^ Ahmad, Faizan (20 July 2012). "Amartya Sen named Nalanda University chancellor". The Times Of India (India). Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  25. ^ Producer/director: Suman Ghosh | Narrator: Victor Banerjee (2003). Amartya Sen: A Life Reexamined, A Film (DVD). Brooklyn, New York: First Run/Icarus Films.  Icarus Films newsletter.
  26. ^ Gupta, Aparajita (1 January 2012). "Nobel laureate's life on silver screen".  
  27. ^ Artist: Annabel Cullen | Subject: Amartya Sen (2001). Amartya Sen (b.1933), Master (1998–2004), Economist and Philosopher (Painting). Trinity College, University of Cambridge: BBC Your Paintings | Collection: Trinity College, University of Cambridge. 
  28. ^ Artist: Antony Williams | Subject: Amartya Sen (2003). Amartya Sen (Painting). National Portrait Gallery, London. 
  29. ^ Sen, Amartya (23 November 2001). "A world not neatly divided". New York: New York Times | Opinion. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  30. ^ "Amartya Sen speaks on culture at World Bank". Tokyo: The World Bank | News & Broadcast. 13 December 2000. Retrieved 16 June 2014. When a Hindu priest begins the puja today, invoking an alternative calendar and declaring the year 1406, what is he remembering? Mohamed’s flight from Mecca to Medina, in a mixed lunar and solar form! ... This is why cultural studies are so important, because it brings out clearly how non-insular cultures are and their willingness to accept new influences.  Pdf transcript.
  31. ^ Chanda, Arup (28 December 1998). "Market economy not the panacea, says Sen". Rediff On The Net. Retrieved 16 June 2014. Although this is a personal matter... But the answer to your question is: No. I do not believe in god. 
  32. ^ Bardhan, Pranab (July–August 2006). "The arguing Indian". California Magazine (Cal Alumni Association UC Berkeley). Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  33. ^ "Curriculum Vitae: Amartya Sen". Harvard University. January 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  34. ^ "Chapter "S"", Members of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences: 1780-2013, Cambridge, Massachusetts: American Academy of Arts & Sciences, 2013, p. 498, retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  35. ^ "Professor Amartya Sen receives awards from the governments of France and Mexico". Harvard University | Department of Economics | News. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  36. ^ "Remise des insignes de Commandeur de la légion d’honneur à M. Amartya SEN" (Transcript of Legion of Honour presentation speech by French President, Francois Hollande). Présidence de la République française | Déclarations/Discours. 15 February 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  37. ^ Ghosh, Deepshikha (14 December 2013). "If you get an honour you think you don't deserve, it's still very pleasant: Amartya Sen". New Delhi: NDTV. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  38. ^ Sugden, Robert (September 1986). Commodities and Capabilities" by Amartya Sen""". The Economic Journal (JSTOR) 96 (383): 820–822.  
  39. ^ Mathur, Piyush (31 October 2003). "Revisiting a classic "Development as Freedom" by Amartya Sen". Asia Times Online. Retrieved 15 June 2014. 
  40. ^ Mishra, Pankaj (9 July 2005). "In defence of reason (book review)". London: The Guardian | Books. Retrieved 10 July 2013. 
  41. ^ Tharoor, Shashi (16 October 2005). "A passage to India". Washington D.C.:  
  42. ^ Sen, Amartya (17 December 1998). "Reason must always come before identity, says Sen". University of Oxford. Retrieved 14 June 2014. 

Further reading

  • Forman-Barzilai, Fonna (2012), "Taking a broader view of humanity: an interview with Amartya Sen.", in Browning, Gary; Dimova-Cookson, Maria;  

External links

Academic offices
Preceded by
Sir Michael Atiyah
Master of Trinity College, University of Cambridge
1998–2004
Succeeded by
Sir Martin Rees
Educational offices
New title President of the Human Development and Capability Association
September 2004 – September 2006
Succeeded by
Martha Nussbaum
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