World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Andre Geim

Article Id: WHEBN0017054160
Reproduction Date:

Title: Andre Geim  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Konstantin Novoselov, University of Manchester, Ig Nobel Prize, Magnetic levitation, School of Computer Science, University of Manchester
Collection: 1958 Births, Academics of the University of Manchester, British Emigrants to the Netherlands, British Inventors, British Nobel Laureates, British People of German Descent, British People of Jewish Descent, British People of Russian Descent, British Physicists, Commanders of the Order of the Netherlands Lion, Dutch Inventors, Dutch Nobel Laureates, Dutch People of German-Jewish Descent, Dutch People of Russian Descent, Dutch Physicists, Fellows of the Royal Society, Graphene, Knights Bachelor, Living People, Magnetic Levitation, Members of the United States National Academy of Sciences, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology Alumni, National Academy of Sciences Laureates, Naturalised Citizens of the Netherlands, Naturalised Citizens of the United Kingdom, Nobel Laureates in Physics, People from Manchester, People from Sochi, Russian Emigrants to the United Kingdom, Russian Inventors, Russian Nobel Laureates, Russian People of Jewish Descent, Russian Physicists, Russian-German People, School of Computer Science, University of Manchester, Volga German People
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Andre Geim

Sir Andre Geim
Born
  • Russian: Андрей Константинович Гейм
  • Andre Konstantin Geim

(1958-10-21) 21 October 1958 [1]
Sochi, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
Residence Manchester, England
Nationality Dutch and British
Fields Condensed matter physics
Institutions
Alma mater Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
Thesis Investigation of mechanisms of transport relaxation in metals by a helicon resonance method (1987)
Doctoral advisor Victor Petrashov[2][3]
Doctoral students
  • Soren Neubeck[4]
  • Konstantin Novoselov[5]
  • Rashid Jalil[6]
    Da Jiang[7]
  • Rahul Raveendran-Nair[8]
    Ibtsam Riaz[9]
  • Gareth Young[10]
Known for
Notable awards
Spouse Irina V. Grigorieva[18][19]
Website
//geim/academic/people.uk.ac.manchester.physicscondmat

Sir Andre Konstantin Geim, FRS,[16] HonFRSC, HonFInstP (born 21 October 1958) is a Soviet-born Dutch-British physicist working in the School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Manchester.[20]

Geim was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics jointly with Konstantin Novoselov for his work on graphene.[21][22] He is Regius Professor of Physics and Royal Society Research Professor at the Manchester Centre for Mesoscience and Nanotechnology.[23][24][25][26][27][28][29]

In addition to the 2010 Nobel Prize, he received an Ig Nobel Prize in 2000 for using the magnetic properties of water scaling to levitate a small frog with magnets. This makes him the first, and thus far only, person to receive both the prestigious science award and its tongue-in-cheek equivalent.

Contents

  • Education 1
  • Academic career 2
  • Research 3
  • Honours and awards 4
    • Nobel Prize in Physics 4.1
  • Personal life 5
    • View and opinions 5.1
    • Identity 5.2
  • References 6
  • Further reading 7

Education

Andre Geim was born to Konstantin Alekseyevich Geim and Nina Nikolayevna Bayer in Sochi on 21 October 1958. Both his parents were engineers of German origin.[30][31] In 1965, the family moved to Nalchik, Russia,[32] where he studied at a high school.[32] After graduation, he applied to the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute.[33] He took the entrance exams twice, but attributes his failure to qualify to discrimination on account of his German ethnicity.[30] He then applied to the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), where he was accepted. He said that at the time he would not have chosen to study solid-state physics, preferring particle physics or astrophysics, but is now happy with his choice.[34] He received a diplom (MSc degree equivalent) from MIPT in 1982 and a Candidate of Sciences (PhD equivalent) degree in metal physics in 1987 from the Institute of Solid State Physics (ISSP) at the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) in Chernogolovka.[34][35]

Academic career

After earning his PhD with Victor Petrashov,[2] Geim worked as a research scientist at the Institute for Microelectronics Technology (IMT) at RAS, and from 1990 as a post-doctoral fellow at the universities of Nottingham (twice), Bath, and Copenhagen. He said that while at Nottingham he could spend his time on research rather than "swimming through Soviet treacle",[30] and determined to leave Russia.[36]

He obtained his first tenured position in 1994, when he was appointed associate professor at Radboud University Nijmegen, where he did work on mesoscopic superconductivity.[37] He later gained Dutch citizenship. One of his doctoral students at Nijmegen was Konstantin Novoselov, who went on to become his main research partner. However, Geim has said that he had an unpleasant time during his academic career in the Netherlands. He was offered professorships at Nijmegen and Eindhoven, but turned them down as he found the Dutch academic system too hierarchical and full of petty politicking. "This can be pretty unpleasant at times," he says. "It's not like the British system where every staff member is an equal quantity."[36] On the other hand, Geim writes in his Nobel lecture that "In addition, the situation was a bit surreal because outside the university walls I received a warm-hearted welcome from everyone around, including Jan Kees and other academics."[38] (Prof. Jan Kees Maan was the research boss of Geim during his time at Radboud University Nijmegen).

In 2001 he became a professor of physics at the University of Manchester, and was appointed director of the Manchester Centre for Mesoscience and Nanotechnology in 2002. Geim's wife and long-standing co-author, Irina Grigorieva, also moved to Manchester as a lecturer in 2001. The same year, they were joined by Novoselov who moved to Manchester from Nijmegen, which awarded him a PhD in 2004. Geim served as Langworthy Professor between 2007 and 2013, leaving this endowed professorship to Dr Novoselov in 2012.[35] Also, between 2007 and 2010 Geim was an EPSRC Senior Research Fellow before becoming one of Royal Society Research Professors.[35][39] In 2010 Radboud University Nijmegen appointed him professor of innovative materials and nanoscience, extending Geim's long list of honorary professorships.[40]

Research

Graphene is an atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon atoms.

Geim's achievements include the discovery of a simple method for isolating single atomic layers of graphite, known as graphene, in collaboration with researchers at the University of Manchester[41] and IMT. The team published their findings in October 2004 in Science.[42][43][44]

Graphene consists of one-atom-thick layers of carbon atoms arranged in two-dimensional hexagons,[45][46] and is the thinnest material in the world, as well as one of the strongest and hardest.[47] The material has many potential applications and is considered a superior alternative to silicon.[48]

Geim said one of the first applications of graphene could be in the development of flexible touchscreens, and that he has not patented the material because he would need a specific application and an industrial partner.[49]

"Spider-Man test" of gecko tape[15]

Geim was involved in the development of a biomimetic adhesive which became known as gecko tape[15]—so called because of the adhesiveness of gecko feet—research of which is still in the early stages.[50] It is hoped that the development will eventually allow humans to scale ceilings, like Spider-Man.[51]

Geim's research in 1997 into the possible effects of magnetism on water scaling led to the famous discovery of direct diamagnetic levitation of water, and led to a frog being levitated.[52] For this experiment, he and Michael Berry received the 2000 Ig Nobel Prize.[14] "We were asked first whether we dared to accept this prize, and I take pride in our sense of humor and self-deprecation that we did".[30]

Geim has also carried out research on mesoscopic physics and superconductivity.[36][53]

He said of the range of subjects he has studied: "Many people choose a subject for their PhD and then continue the same subject until they retire. I despise this approach. I have changed my subject five times before I got my first tenured position and that helped me to learn different subjects."[34]

Geim's research has been funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC).[39][54]

He named his favourite hamster, H.A.M.S. ter Tisha, co-author in a 2001 research paper.[42][55]

Honours and awards

Magnetically levitating a live frog, an experiment that earned Geim and Michael Berry the 2000 Ig Nobel Prize
Geim shared the 2000 Ig Nobel Prize in physics with Michael Berry for the frog experiment.[56] In 2006 he appeared on the Scientific American 50.[57] The Institute of Physics awarded him the 2007 Mott Medal and Prize "for his discovery of a new class of materials—free-standing two-dimensional crystals—in particular graphene".[58] Geim was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 2007.[16] His certificate of election reads:

He shared the 2008 EuroPhysics Prize with Novoselov "for discovering and isolating a single free-standing atomic layer of carbon (graphene) and elucidating its remarkable electronic properties".[59] In 2009 he received the Körber European Science Award.[60] The US National Academy of Sciences honoured him with the 2010 John J. Carty Award for the Advancement of Science "for his experimental realisation and investigation of graphene, the two-dimensional form of carbon".[61] He was awarded one of six Royal Society 2010 Anniversary Research Professorships.[62] The Royal Society added its 2010 Hughes Medal "for his revolutionary discovery of graphene and elucidation of its remarkable properties".[63] He was awarded honorary doctorates from Delft University of Technology,[64] ETH Zürich,[40] the University of Antwerp[65] and the University of Manchester. In 2010, Geim was appointed as Knight Commander of the Order of the Netherlands Lion for his contribution to Dutch Science.[66] He is Honorary Professor of Moscow Phys-Tech, Honorary Professor of the University of Nijmegen, Honorary Fellow of the Institute of Physics (HonFInstP), Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry (HonFRSC), Honorary Fellow of Singapore Institute of Physics, Honorary Professor of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.[67] Geim was furthermore made a Knight Bachelor in the 2012 New Year Honours for services to science.[68][69] He was elected a foreign associate of the US National Academy of Sciences in May 2012[70] and awarded the Copley Medal in 2013.

Nobel Prize in Physics

On 5 October 2010, Geim was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics jointly with Novoselov "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene".[71] Upon hearing of the award he said, "I'm fine, I slept well. I didn't expect the Nobel Prize this year", and that his plans for the day would not change.[72] The lecture for the award took place on 8 December 2010 at Stockholm University.[73] He said he hopes that graphene and other two-dimensional crystals will change everyday life as plastics did for humanity.[74] A colleague of Geim said that his award shows that people can still win a Nobel by "mucking about in a lab".[75] The award made him the first person to win, as an individual, both a Nobel Prize and an Ig Nobel Prize.[76] On winning both a Nobel and Ig Nobel, he has stated that
"Frankly, I value both my Ig Nobel prize and Nobel prize at the same level and for me Ig Nobel prize was the manifestation that I can take jokes, a little bit of self-deprecation always helps."[2]

Personal life

View and opinions

Geim was one of 38 Nobel laureates who signed a declaration in 2010 issued by Scholars for Peace in the Middle East condemning international attempts to boycott Israeli academics, institutions, and research centers.[77]

At the Nobel Minds symposium in December 2010, Geim said the Nobel Peace Prize committee's choice of Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobo as winner of the Nobel Peace Prize was patronising, saying "Look at the people who give this Nobel prize. They are retired Norwegian politicians who have spent all their careers in a safe environment, in an oil-rich modern country. They try to extend their views of the world, how the world should work and how democracy works in another country. It's very, very patronising—they have not lived in these countries. In the past 10 years, China has developed not only economically, but even the strongest human rights supporter would agree also human rights have improved. Why do we need to distort this?"[78][79]

Geim has written several opinion pieces for The Financial Times, examples of which can be found on his university webpage.[80]

Geim's interview for Desert Island Discs, a popular BBC radio programme, reveals details of his personal life and taste in music.[81]

Identity

Geim has a complex ancestry which is described in detail in his Nobel Prize autobiography.[30] In there, Geim has stated that most of his family are ethnic Germans where his father descended from Volga Germans and his mother was mostly an ethnic German as well. Both his father and paternal grandfather had spent many years of their lives as prisoners in Siberia in Stalin's Gulags, and "some of the family had been prisoners in German concentration camps". He also states that he "suffered from anti-Semitism in Russia because my name sounds Jewish".[82] Geim summarises his identity as follows. "To the best of my knowledge, the only Jew in the family was my great-grandmother, with the rest on both sides being German. Having lived and worked in several European countries, I consider myself European and do not believe that any further taxonomy is necessary, especially in such a fluid world as the world of science."[30][83]

References

  1. ^ a b (subscription required)
  2. ^ a b c d
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ ISBN 9090183663
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^ a b
  15. ^ a b c
  16. ^ a b c d
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^ Andre Geim's publications indexed by the Scopus bibliographic database, a service provided by Elsevier.
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^ Arthur, Charles. "Scientists magnetised by levitating frog". The Independent. 12 April 1997. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
  28. ^ Novoselov, K. S. et al. (2004). "Room-temperature electric field effect and carrier-type inversion in graphene films". Submitted to Nature on 5 February 2004.
  29. ^
  30. ^ a b c d e f
  31. ^
  32. ^ a b Translated from the German by Alex Herzog, "Andre Geim, a German Russian, is Awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics", Germans from Russia Heritage Collection, North Dakota State University, October 2010. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
  33. ^ "най наших: лауреатом Нобелевской премии по физике стал российский немец" (Russian) (Google Translate). rusdeutsch.ru. 6 October 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  34. ^ a b c Murphy, John. "Renaissance scientist with fund of ideas". Scientific Computing World. June/July 2006. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  35. ^ a b c Geim's CV DOC (56.5 KB). University of Manchester. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  36. ^ a b c "A physicist of many talents". Physics World. February 2006. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  37. ^
  38. ^ Nobel lecture http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2010/geim_lecture.pdf
  39. ^ a b
  40. ^ a b "Discoverer of graphene back at Radboud University as professor". Radboud University Nijmegen. 15 February 2010. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  41. ^
  42. ^ a b (October 2009). "22 October 2004: Discovery of Graphene" PDF (2.14 MB). APS News (American Physical Society) 18 (9): 2. See the online version here [1].
  43. ^ "Radical fabric is one atom thick". BBC News. 22 October 2004. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  44. ^
  45. ^
  46. ^ Palmer, Jason. "Bendy gadget future for graphene". BBC News. 14 January 2009. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  47. ^ Overbye, Dennis. "Physics Nobel Honors Work on Ultra-Thin Carbon". The New York Times. 5 October 2010. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  48. ^ Waters, Darren. "Nano switch hints at future chips". BBC News. 17 April 2008. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  49. ^
  50. ^ Black, Richard. "Gecko inspires sticky tape". BBC News. 1 June 2003. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  51. ^ Highfield, Roger. "Gecko lizards inspire 'Spiderman gloves'". The Daily Telegraph. 23 January 2008. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
  52. ^ "The Frog That Learned to Fly". Radboud University Nijmegen. Retrieved 19 October 2010. For Geim's account of diamagnetic levitation, see Geim, Andrey. "Everyone's Magnetism PDF (688 KB). Physics Today. September 1998. pp. 36–39. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  53. ^
  54. ^
  55. ^
  56. ^ "Winners of the Ig Nobel Prize". Ig Nobel Prize. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  57. ^ "Scientific American 50: SA 50 Winners and Contributors". Scientific American. 12 November 2006. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  58. ^ "2007 Mott medal and prize". Institute of Physics. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  59. ^ Johnston, Hamish. "Graphene pioneers bag Europhysics prize". Physics World. 2 September 2008. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  60. ^ "Graphene pioneer wins major international prize". University of Manchester. 21 April 2009. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  61. ^ "John J. Carty Award for the Advancement of Science". United States National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  62. ^ "Top researchers receive Royal Society 2010 Anniversary Professorships". Royal Society. 16 October 2009. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  63. ^ "The Hughes Medal (1902)". Royal Society. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  64. ^ "TU Delft honorary doctorate Geim wins Nobel Prize for graphene research". Delft University of Technology. 5 October 2010. Retrieved 24 October 2010.
  65. ^ "Prizes and awards". University of Antwerp. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
  66. ^
  67. ^
  68. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 60009. p. 1. 31 December 2011.
  69. ^
  70. ^
  71. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010". Nobel Prize. Retrieved 26 October 2010. For a video of the announcement, see "Announcement of the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics". Nobel Prize. Retrieved 26 October 2010. For the interview with Geim following the award, see "Telephone interview with Andre Geim". Nobel Prize. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
  72. ^ "Materials breakthrough wins Nobel". BBC News. 5 October 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  73. ^ "Nobel Lecture". Nobel Prize. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
  74. ^ "Research into graphene wins Nobel Prize". CNN. 5 October 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
  75. ^ Alleyne, Richard. "'Mucking about' with pencil lead and sticky tape wins Nobel Prize for Physics". The Daily Telegraph. 5 October 2010. Retrieved 25 October 2010.
  76. ^
  77. ^ Statement. Scholars for Peace in the Middle East. 28 October 2010. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
  78. ^ "2010 Nobel Minds". nobelprize.org. Passage begins at about 19:00. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
  79. ^ Bannerman, Lucy. "Liu Xiaobo wrong man for Nobel Peace Prize, say laureates". The Australian. 13 December 2010. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
  80. ^ //geim/academic/people.uk.ac.manchester.physics.condmatwww
  81. ^ #b03z3l2g/20e3bf76/castaway/desert-island-discs/features/radio4.uk.co.bbcwww
  82. ^ Gali Weinreb Nobel Laureate Geim: Life sciences suited for small countries Globes 16 November 10 [2]
  83. ^

Further reading

  • Documents at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian)
  • Geim's Nobel Prize banquet speech
  • Publications at Astrophysics Data System, NASA
  • Selected research papers by Andre Geim's group
  • Selected research papers by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov related to research that won them the Nobel Prize
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.