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Antimicrobial pharmacodynamics

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Title: Antimicrobial pharmacodynamics  
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Subject: Pharmacology, Antimicrobial resistance, Pharmacodynamics, Antibiotic use in livestock, Rate of infusion
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Antimicrobial pharmacodynamics

Antimicrobial pharmacodynamics is the relationship between concentration of antibiotic and its ability to inhibit vital processes of endo- or ectoparasites and microbial organisms.[1] This branch of pharmacodynamics relates concentration of an anti-infective agent to effect, but specifically to its antimicrobial effect.[2]

Concentration-dependent effects

The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration are used to measure in vitro activity antimicrobial and is an excellent indicator of antimicrobial potency. They don't give any information relating to time-dependent antimicrobial killing the so-called post antibiotic effect.[1]

Post Antibiotic Effect

The post antibiotic effect (PAE) is defined as persistent suppression of bacterial growth after a brief exposure (1 or 2 hours) of bacteria to an antibiotic even in the absence of host defense mechanisms.[3] Factors that affect the duration of the post antibiotic effect include duration of antibiotic exposure, bacterial species, culture medium and class of antibiotic. It has been suggested that an alteration of DNA function is possibly responsible for post antibiotic effect following the observation that most inhibitors of protein and nucleic acid synthesis (aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, clindamycin, certain newer macrolides/ketolides, and rifampicin and rifabutin) induce long-term PAE against susceptible bacteria. [4][3] Theoretically, the ability of an antibiotic to induce a PAE is an attractive property of an antibiotic since antibiotic concentrations could fall below the MIC for the bacterium yet retain their effectiveness in their ability to suppress the growth. Therefore, An antibiotic with PAE ,require less frequent administration and it can improve patient adherence through pharmacotherapy[3][5]

References

  1. ^ a b C.H. Nightingale, T. Murakawa, P.G. Ambrose (2002) Antimicrobial Pharmacodynamics in Theory and Clinical Practice Informa Health Care ISBN 0-8247-0561-0
  2. ^ Drusano GL (2004). "Antimicrobial pharmacodynamics: critical interactions of 'bug and drug'". Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2 (4): 289–300.  
  3. ^ a b c http://medind.nic.in/ibi/t02/i6/ibit02i6p390.pdf
  4. ^ Guan L, Blumenthal RM, Burnham JC (October 1992). "Analysis of macromolecular biosynthesis to define the quinolone-induced postantibiotic effect in Escherichia coli". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36 (10): 2118–24.  
  5. ^ Zarrini G, Bahari-Delgosha Z, Mollazadeh-Moghaddam K, Shahverdi AR (2010). "Post-antibacterial effect of thymol". Pharmaceutical biology 48 (6): 633–636.  
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