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Arms industry

Workers assemble Browning-Inglis Hi-Power pistols at the John Inglis munitions plant, Canada, April 1944

The arms industry is a global business that manufactures weapons and military technology and equipment. It consists of commercial industry involved in research and development, production, and the service of military material, equipment, and facilities. Arms producing companies, also referred to as defense contractors or military industry, produce arms mainly for the armed forces of states. Departments of government also operate in the arms industry, buying and selling weapons, munitions and other military items. Products include guns, ammunition, missiles, military aircraft, military vehicles, ships, electronic systems, and more. The arms industry also provides other logistical and operational support.

It is estimated that yearly, over 1.5 trillion United States dollars are spent on military expenditures worldwide (2.7% of World GDP).[1] This represents a decline from 1990 when military expenditures made up 4% of world GDP. Part of this goes to the procurement of military hardware and services from the military industry. The combined arms sales of the top 100 largest arms producing companies amounted to an estimated $395 billion in 2012 according to Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).[2] In 2004 over $30 billion were spent in the international arms trade (a figure that excludes domestic sales of arms).[3] According to SIPRI, the volume of international transfers of major weapons in 2010–14 was 16 per cent higher than in 2005–2009. The five biggest exporters in 2010–14 were the United States, Russia, China, Germany and France, and the five biggest importers were India, Saudi Arabia, China, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Pakistan.[4] The arms trade has also been one of the sectors impacted by the credit crunch, with total deal value in the market halving from US$32.9 billion to US$14.3 billion in 2008.[5]

Many industrialized countries have a domestic arms industry to supply their own military forces. Some countries also have a substantial legal or illegal domestic trade in weapons for use by its citizens. An illegal trade in small arms is prevalent in many countries and regions affected by political instability. The Small Arms Survey estimates 875 million small arms in circulation worldwide, produced by more than 1,000 companies from nearly 100 countries.[6]

Contracts to supply a given country's military are awarded by the government, making arms contracts of substantial political importance. The link between politics and the arms trade can result in the development of what U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower described as a military-industrial complex, where the armed forces, commerce, and politics become closely linked, similarly to the European defence procurement. Various corporations, some publicly held, others private, bid for these contracts, which are often worth many billions of dollars. Sometimes, such as the contract for the new Joint Strike Fighter, a competitive tendering process takes place, where the decision is made on the merits of the design submitted by the companies involved. Other times, no bidding or competition takes place.

Unimog truck at IDEF in 2007.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Sectors 2
    • Land-based weapons 2.1
      • Small arms 2.1.1
    • Aerospace systems 2.2
    • Naval systems 2.3
  • World's largest defense budgets 3
  • International arms transfers 4
  • World's largest arms exporters 5
  • World's largest arms importers 6
  • List of major weapon manufacturers 7
    • Major arms industry corporations by nation 7.1
    • Largest arms industry companies 7.2
  • Institutes participating in weapon research and warfare simulation 8
  • Arms control 9
    • Notable international arms control treaties 9.1
  • See also 10
  • References 11
  • External links 12

History

Painting shells in a shell filling factory during World War I.

Trade in arms and technological diffusion is as old as the history of war itself. During the early modern period, France, England, Netherlands and some states in Germany became self-sufficient in arms production, with diffusion and migration of skilled workers to more peripheral countries such as Portugal and Russia.

The modern arms industry emerged in the second half of the nineteenth century as a product of the creation and expansion of the first large military-industrial companies. As smaller countries (and even newly industrializing countries like Russia and Japan) could no longer produce cutting-edge military equipment with their indigenous resources and capacity, they increasingly began to contract the manufacture of military equipment, such as battleships, artillery pieces and rifles to foreign firms.

In 1854, the British government awarded a contract to the Elswick Ordnance Company of industrialist William Armstrong for the supply of his latest breech loading rifled artillery pieces. This galvanised the private sector into weapons production, with the surplus being increasingly exported to foreign countries. Armstrong became one of the first international arms dealers, selling his weapon systems to governments across the world from Brazil to Japan.[7] In 1884 he opened a shipyard at Elswick to specialise in warship production—at the time, it was the only factory in the world that could build a battleship and arm it completely.[8] The factory produced warships for many navies, including the Imperial Japanese Navy. Several Armstrong cruisers played an important role in defeating the Russian fleet at the Battle of Tsushima in 1905.

In 1885, France decided to capitalize on this increasingly lucrative form of trade and repealed its ban on weapon exports. The regulatory framework for the period up to the First World War was characterized by a laissez-faire policy that placed little obstruction in the way of weapons exports. Due to the carnage of World War I, arms traders began to be regarded with odium as "merchants of death" and were accused of having instigated and perpetuated the war in order to maximise their profits from arms sales. An inquiry into these allegations in Britain failed to find evidence to support them. However, the sea change in attitude about war more generally meant that governments began to control and regulate the trade themselves.

Stacks of shells in the shell filling factory at Chilwell during World War I.

The volume of the arms trade greatly increased during the 20th century, and it began to be used as a political tool, especially during the Cold War where the United States and the USSR supplied weapons to their proxies across the world, particularly third world countries (see Nixon Doctrine).[9]

Sectors

The AK series of weapons have been produced in greater numbers than any other firearm and have been used in conflicts all over the world.

Land-based weapons

This category includes everything from

  • Amnesty International: Arms Trade
  • The British Library – Defence Industry Guide (sources of information)
  • Campaign Against Arms Trade (UK)
  • ControlArms.org
  • Defense Industrial Base blog by Jeffrey Peter Bradford
  • FAS's Arms Sales Monitoring Project
  • The Guardian's arms trade report
  • List of participators of the Defense System and Equipment international conference in London, 2003
  • SIPRI arms industry reports and database
  • SIPRI list of Top 100 arms-producing companies
  • SPADE Defense Index (NYSE: DXS) Defense sector market index
  • The True Cost of Global Arms Trade [infographic included]
  • UN Office for Disarmament Affairs
  • U.S. Arms Sales to the Third World from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives
  • Viktor Bout arms trade case
  • World Map and Chart of Arms exports per country by Lebanese-economy-forum, World Bank data
  • World Security Institute's Center for Defense Information
  • Z. Yihdego, Arms Trade and International Law, Hart: OXford, 2007

External links

  1. ^ World Military Spending. www.globalissues.org. Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
  2. ^ Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Sipri.org. Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
  3. ^ Arms trade key statistics. BBC News (2005-09-15). Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
  4. ^ a b c d "Trends in International Arms Transfer, 2014". www.sipri.org. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  5. ^ Defence sector deal-making is finding itself in a war zone, warns report. 12 March 2009. BriskFox. Briskfox.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
  6. ^ "Small Arms Survey - Weapons and Markets- 875m small arms worldwide, value of authorized trade is more than $8.5b". 8 December 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2015. 
  7. ^ "William George Armstrong (1810–1900)". 
  8. ^ Dougan, David (1970). The Great Gun-Maker: The Story of Lord Armstrong. Sandhill Press Ltd.  
  9. ^ Stohl, Rachel; Grillot, Suzette (2013). The International Arms Trade. Wiley Press. Retrieved 2013-02-07. 
  10. ^ a b c International Defense Industry at the Wayback Machine (archived July 26, 2011). www.fpa.org
  11. ^ Debbie Hillier, Brian Wood (2003). "Shattered Lives – the case for tough international arms control" (PDF). Control Arms Campaign. p. 19. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  12. ^ a b Top List TIV Tables-SIPRI. Armstrade.sipri.org. Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
  13. ^ armstrad — www.sipri.org. Sipri.org. Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
  14. ^ The SIPRI Top 100 arms-producing companies, 2008 — www.sipri.org. Sipri.org. Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
  15. ^ a b "Saudi Arabia outpaces India to become top defence importer: IHS". The Times of India. Retrieved 26 March 2015. 
  16. ^ "Saudi Arabia outpaces India to become top defence importer - IHS". Retrieved 26 March 2015. 
  17. ^ "Saudi Arabia becomes world's biggest arms importer". the Guardian. Retrieved 26 March 2015. 
  18. ^ a b http://www.sipri.org/research/armaments/production/recent-trends-in-arms-industry
  19. ^ http://www.sipri.org/research/armaments/production/recent-trends-in-arms-industry/Fact%20Sheet%20Top100%202013.pdf
  20. ^ http://en.europeonline-magazine.eu/western-firms-dominate-global-arms-sales_368142.html
  21. ^ "SIPRI Releases Top 100 Defense Company Data". Defense News. Retrieved 26 March 2015. 
  22. ^ TNO Defence, Security and Safety at the Wayback Machine (archived September 23, 2006). tno.nl
  23. ^ Barry Kolodkin. "What Is Arms Control?" (Article). About.com, US Foreign Policy. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 13 May 2012. 
  24. ^ Anonymous. The Global Arms Trade: Strengthening International Regulations. Interview with Oscar Arias Sanchez. Harvard International Review Date: Tuesday, July 1, 2008 http://www.allbusiness.com/government/government-bodies-offices/11664335-1.html accessed 10 Feb 2010
  25. ^ Delgado,Andrea. Explainer: What is the Arms Trade Treaty, 23, Feb, 2015, https://theconversation.com/explainer-what-is-the-arms-trade-treaty-37673
  26. ^ EU@UN – EU Presidency Statement – United Nations 62nd General Assembly: General Debate. Europa-eu-un.org. Retrieved on 2012-05-09.

References

See also

The European Council stated to the United Nations General Assembly:

Global weapons sales from 1950-2006

Notable international arms control treaties

Oscar Arias Sanchez President of Costa Rica (awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1987 for his efforts to end civil wars across Central America through the Esquipulas II Accord) has stated:

Arms control refers to international restrictions upon the development, production, stockpiling, proliferation and usage of small arms, conventional weapons, and weapons of mass destruction.[23] It is typically exercised through the use of diplomacy, which seeks to persuade governments to accept such limitations through agreements and treaties, although it may also be forced upon non-consenting governments.

Arms control

Institutes participating in weapon research and warfare simulation

Rank Company Country Arms sales (US$ m.) Total sales (US$ m.) Arms sales as a % of total sales Total profit Total employment
1 Lockheed Martin  United States 35 490 45 500 78 2 981 115 000
2 Boeing  United States 30 700 86 623 35 4 585 168 400
3 BAE Systems  United Kingdom 26 820 28 406 94 275 84 600
4 Raytheon  United States 21 950 23 706 93 2 013 63 000
5 Northrop Grumman  United States 20 200 24 661 82 1 952 65 300
6 General Dynamics  United States 18 660 31 218 60 2 357 96 000
7 EADS  European Union 15 740 78 693 20 1 959 144 060
8 United Technologies Corporation  United States 11 900 62 626 19 5 721 212 000
9 Finmeccanica  Italy 10 560 21 292 50 98 63 840
10 Thales Group  France 10 370 18 850 55 761 65 190

This is a list of the world's largest arms manufacturers and other military service companies who profit the most from the [18][19][20][21] The list provided by the SIPRI excludes companies based in China.

Share of arms sales by country. Source is provided by [18]

Largest arms industry companies

Major arms industry corporations by nation

Private military contractors are private companies that provide logistics, manpower, and other expenditures for a military force.

List of major weapon manufacturers

2014 rank Recipient Arms imports
1  Saudi Arabia 4243[15]
2  India 2629[15][16]
3  Turkey 1550
4  China 1357[17]
5  Indonesia 1200
6  Vietnam 1058
7  Taiwan 1039
8  United Arab Emirates 1031
9  Australia 842
10  Oman 738
11  Singapore 717
12  Pakistan 659
13  Azerbaijan 640
14  Iraq 627
15  Morocco 594

The units in this table are so-called trend indicator values expressed in millions of U.S. dollars. These values do not represent real financial flows but are a crude instrument to estimate volumes of arms transfers, regardless of the contracted prices, which can be as low as zero in the case of military aid.[12]

World's largest arms importers

As of 2008, Britain has become the world's leading developer of arms with British company BAE Systems.[14] Defence group BAE Systems is the first company outside the United States to reach the top position, thanks to a deal with the Pentagon for mine-resistant vehicles to be used in Iraq and Afghanistan. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, a defence think tank, the former British Aerospace group's arms sales are ahead of American market leaders Lockheed Martin and Boeing. The report reveals BAE's U.S. subsidiary was alone responsible for 61.5% of the group's arms sales and around 58.5% of total group sales. This demonstrates BAE's increasing reliance on orders for conventional weapons as the United States cuts back on its nuclear arsenal. The British figures were also boosted by orders for Eurofighter Typhoon jets from Saudi Arabia.

Some of the differences are possibly due to deliberate over- or under-reporting by some of the sources. Governments may claim high arms exports as part of their role in marketing efforts of their national arms industry or they may claim low arms exports in order to be perceived as a responsible international actor.

Next to SIPRI there are several other sources that provide data on international transfers of arms. These include national reports by national governments about arms exports, the UN register on conventional arms and an annual publication by the U.S. Congressional Research Service that includes data on arms exports to developing countries as compiled by U.S. intelligence agencies. A list of such sources can be found at the SIPRI website.[13] Due to the different methodologies and definitions used different sources often provide significantly different data. For example, according to Statistisk sentralbyrå (Norway state statistics), Norway exports a greater value (in USD) of arms than many of the nations listed above.

Sgraffito at the Lambert Sevart weapons factory, in Liege (Belgium) (early 20th Century).
2001–12 Rank Supplier 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
1  United States 5908 5229 5698 6866 6700 7453 8003 6288 6658 8641 9984 8760
2  Russia 5896 5705 5236 6178 5134 5095 5426 5953 5575 6039 7874 8003
3  China 850 916 1713 1105 2080 2567 3194 2500 2432 2340 1206 1193
4  France 1297 1368 1345 2219 1724 1643 2432 1994 1865 1834 2437 1139
5  Germany 499 509 665 292 303 597 430 586 1000 1423 1354 1783
6  United Kingdom 700 311 442 200 290 553 728 330 320 201 484 1344
7  Ukraine 1368 1068 741 1316 1039 855 1018 982 1022 1054 1070 863
8  Italy 880 191 526 314 538 432 366 454 383 806 1046 847
9  Spain 7 120 150 56 108 843 590 610 998 513 927 720
10  Israel 203 239 342 209 583 1187 1326 530 545 503 531 533
11  Sweden 216 426 341 212 774 502 684 417 514 806 686 496
12  Canada 129 170 263 265 226 226 334 227 169 258 292 276
13   Switzerland 193 157 181 243 246 285 301 482 255 137 297 210
14  South Korea 165 N/A 100 29 48 94 220 80 163 95 225 183
2014 rank Supplier Arms exports
1  United States 10194
2  Russia 5971
3  China 1978
4  France 1200
5  Germany 1110
6  United Kingdom 1083
7  Israel 1074
8  Spain 824
9  Italy 786
10  Ukraine 664
11  Netherlands 561
12  Sweden 394
13   Switzerland 350
14  Turkey 274
15  Canada 234

The units in this table are so-called trend indicator values expressed in millions of U.S. dollars at 1990s prices. These values do not represent real financial flows but are a crude instrument to estimate volumes of arms transfers, regardless of the contracted prices, which can be as low as zero in the case of military aid. Ordered by descending 2014 values. The information is from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.[12]

World's largest arms exporters

In 2010–14, 153 countries (about three-quarters of all countries) imported major weapons. The top 5 recipients accounted for 33 per cent of the total arms imports during the period (see table 2). India, China and the UAE were among the top 5 importers in both 2005–2009 and 2010–14. Asia and Oceania accounted for nearly half of imports in 2010–14, followed by the Middle East, Europe, the Americas and Africa (see figure 3). SIPRI also identified seven groups of rebel forces as importers of major weapons in 2010–14, but none of them accounted for more than 0.02 per cent of total deliveries.[4]

SIPRI has identified 60 countries as exporters of major weapons in 2010–14. The top 5 exporters during the period were responsible for almost 74 per cent of all arms exports. The composition of the five largest exporters of arms changed between 2005–2009 and 2010–14: while the USA and Russia remained by far the largest exporters, China narrowly, but notably, replaced Germany as the third largest exporter, and the United Kingdom dropped outside the top 5. The top 5 exported 14 per cent more arms in 2010–14 than the top 5 in 2005–2009.[4]

According to research institute, SIPRI, the volume of international transfers of major weapons in 2010–14 was 16 per cent higher than in 2005–2009. The five biggest exporters in 2010–14 were the United States, Russia, China, Germany and France, and the five biggest importers were India, Saudi Arabia, China, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Pakistan. The flow of arms to Africa, the Americas, Asia and Oceania, and the Middle East increased significantly between 2005–2009 and 2010–14, while there was a notable decrease in the flow to Europe.[4]

International arms transfers

World's largest defense budgets

Some of the world's great powers maintain substantial naval forces to provide a global presence, with the largest nations possessing aircraft carriers, nuclear submarines and advanced anti-air defense systems. The vast majority of military ships are conventionally powered, but some are nuclear-powered. There is also a large global market in second-hand naval vessels, generally purchased by developing countries from Western governments.[10]

Naval systems

Encompassing military aircraft (both land-based and naval aviation), conventional missiles, and military satellites, this is the most technologically advanced sector of the market. It is also the least competitive from an economic standpoint, with a handful of companies dominating the entire market. The top clients and major producers are virtually all located in the western world and Russia, with the United States easily in first place. Prominent aerospace firms include Rolls Royce, BAE, Dassault Aviation, Sukhoi, Mikoyan, EADS, Finmeccanica, Thales Group, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman and Boeing. There are also several multinational consortia mostly involved in the manufacturing of fighter jets, such as the Eurofighter. The largest military contract in history, signed in October 2001, involved the development of the Joint Strike Fighter.[10]

A T-45 Goshawk on the assembly line at McDonnell Douglas.

Aerospace systems

The Control Arms Campaign, founded by Amnesty International, Oxfam, and the International Action Network on Small Arms, estimated in 2003 that there are over 639 million small arms in circulation, and that over 1,135 companies based in more than 98 different countries manufacture small arms as well as their various components and ammunition.[11]

Small arms

[10]

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