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Baden

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Baden

Baden
Flag of Baden
Flag
Territory of Baden 1806-1945.
Territory of Baden 1806-1945.
Country  Germany
Region Lander

Baden is a historical German territory. Together with Württemberg and Hohenzollern, two other historical territories, it now forms the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg.[1]

Its neighbors to the north were Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt, to the west Alsace and the Palatinate, to the south Switzerland, and to the east Würtemberg and Bavaria.[2] Baden was named for Hohenbaden Castle at Baden-Baden, an important German spa town.

Geography

Baden lies in the southwestern part of Germany. It extends from the Upper Rhine Plain in the west to the mountain range of the Black forest and Lake Constance in the southeast. In the northeast the Odenwald mountain range forms the boundary of the Rhine plain. The Kaiserstuhl is a small volcanic group between the Rhine and the Black Forest.[2] At 1,493 metres (4,898 ft) the Feldberg is the highest mountain of Baden and the Black Forest.

Cities of Baden area are (from north to south): Mannheim, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Pforzheim and Freiburg im Breisgau.

History

Margraviate

The name comes from the Margraves of Baden, a well-established noble family, from in the 12th century, who was cognate with the House of Zähringen. The Margrave title was originally connected to the March of Verona, which was also ruled by the Zähringers. They transferred the title and called themselves Margraves of Baden. Hermann II was the first Zähringer, named after the ancestral seat at Hohenbaden Castle, situated above the thermal bath town of Baden-Baden then known as "Baden".

From 1535 to 1771, the rule was divided, in the Baden-Durlach lines (Protestant) and Baden-Baden lines (catholic). In 1689, during the Nine Years' War, many towns of Baden, including Baden(-Baden) and Durlach, were destroyed by French troops. Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden, the so-called "Turkish Louis" (1677-1707), made Rastatt his new residence. In 1715, Karl III. Wilhelm of Baden-Durlach founded the new town of Karlsruhe as his new residence. In 1771, Karl Friedrich of Baden-Durlach, inherited the possessions of the extinct line of Baden-Baden, reuniting the two margraviates. Karlsruhe remained the capital.

Napoleonic Times

Baden emerged under the patronage of Napoleon, and diplomat Sigismund von Reitzenstein. In the years 1803-1810, Baden made significant territorial gains, consolidating several smaller states. Troops from Baden fought in the Grande Armée. In 1803, the Electorate of Baden, and later in 1806, the Grand Duchy of Baden were formed.

19th century

In 1818, Baden adopted a constitution, with a bicameral legislature, the Badische Ständeversammlung. In 1835, Baden joined the Zollverein. In 1871, Baden joined the German Reich.

Republic of Baden

In 1918, after unrest at the end of World War I, Baden formed a provisional government, and then Free Peoples Republic. On 21 March 1919, a new constitution was passed by popular vote. The Republic of Baden governed the area during the Weimar Republic.

After World War II this territory was subdivided between Württemberg-Baden and South Baden. Finally, in 1952, it was integrated into Baden-Württemberg, with Stuttgart as capital.

See also

References

Bibliography

  •  
  • Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (Hrsg.): Baden 1789–1918. Führer durch die landes- und kulturgeschichtliche Abteilung. Info-Verlag, Karlsruhe 2001, ISBN 3-88190-273-2.
  • Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (Hrsg.): Baden! 900 Jahre – Geschichten eines Landes. Info-Verlag, Karlsruhe 2012, ISBN 978-3-937345-56-7 (Katalog zur Großen Landesausstellung)
  • Hermann Bausinger: Die bessere Hälfte. Von Badenern und Württembergern. Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, Stuttgart/München 2002, ISBN 3-421-05591-2.
  • Frank Engehausen: Kleine Geschichte des Großherzogtums Baden. DRW-Verlag Weinbrenner, Leinfelden-Echterdingen 2005, ISBN 3-7650-8328-3.
  • Helmut Engler: Große Badener. Gestalten aus 1200 Jahren. Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, Stuttgart 1994, ISBN 3-421-06676-0.
  • Hans Fenske: Der liberale Südwesten. Freiheitliche und demokratische Traditionen in Baden-Württemberg. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1981, ISBN 3-17-007089-4.
  • Rolf Gustav Haebler: Badische Geschichte. Battert Verlag, ohne Ort 1987, ISBN 3-87989-142-7.
  • Heinrich Hauß, Adolf Schmid: Badisches Kalendarium von Tag zu Tag – von Jahr zu Jahr, Personen und Ereignisse. G. Braun, Karlsruhe 2006, ISBN 3-7650-8326-7.
  • Wolfgang Hug: Geschichte Badens. Theiss, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-8062-1022-5.
  • Wolfgang von Hippel: Revolution im deutschen Südwesten. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-17-014039-6.
  • Armin Kohnle: Kleine Geschichte der Markgrafschaft Baden, Leinfelden-Echterdingen 2007, ISBN 978-3-7650-8346-4.
  • Karl Moersch, Peter Hoelzle Kontrapunkt Baden-W… Zur Vorgeschichte und Geschichte des Südweststaates, DRW Verlag, Leinfelden Echterdingen 2002, ISBN 3-87181-478-4
  • Uwe A. Oster: Die Großherzöge von Baden 1806-1918. Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-7917-2084-5.
  • Karl-Heinz Ott: Heimatkunde Baden. Hoffmann & Campe Verlag, Hamburg 2007. ISBN 978-3-455-38024-8
  • Hansmartin Schwarzmaier: Geschichte Badens in Bildern 1100–1918. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-17-012088-3.

External links

  • Landeskunde Online: Baden
  • Landeskundliche Texte


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