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Barremian

System/
Period
Series/
Epoch
Stage/
Age
Age (Ma)
Paleogene Paleocene Danian younger
Cretaceous Upper/
Late
Maastrichtian 66.0–72.1
Campanian 72.1–83.6
Santonian 83.6–86.3
Coniacian 86.3–89.8
Turonian 89.8–93.9
Cenomanian 93.9–100.5
Lower/
Early
Albian 100.5–~113.0
Aptian ~113.0–~125.0
Barremian ~125.0–~129.4
Hauterivian ~129.4–~132.9
Valanginian ~132.9–~139.8
Berriasian ~139.8–~145.0
Jurassic Upper/
Late
Tithonian older
Subdivision of the Cretaceous system
according to the IUGS, as of July 2012.

The Barremian is an age in the geologic timescale (or a chronostratigraphic stage) between 129.4 ± 1.5 Ma (million years ago) and 125.0 ± 1.0 Ma). It is a subdivision of the Early Cretaceous epoch (or Lower Cretaceous series). It is preceded by the Hauterivian and followed by the Aptian stage.[1]

The Barremian falls in the Gallic epoch, a subdivision of the Cretaceous that is no longer used by the ICS. It overlaps the lower part of the Urgonian stage, which is sometimes used in western European stratigraphy. In North America, the late Coahulian and the early Comanchean correspond to the Barremian. In New Zealand, it falls within the Mokoiwian, and in Japan it corresponds to the late Aritan.[1]

Contents

  • Stratigraphic definitions 1
    • Subdivision 1.1
  • Palaeontology 2
    • Cephalopod 2.1
      • †Ammonoidea 2.1.1
      • Neocoleoids 2.1.2
      • †Belemnites 2.1.3
      • Nautiloidea 2.1.4
    • Chondrichthyes 2.2
    • Squamata 2.3
    • Dinosaur (including bird) 2.4
      • †Cerapoda 2.4.1
      • †Other Cerapods 2.4.2
      • †Sauropoda 2.4.3
      • Theropoda 2.4.4
      • †Thyreophora 2.4.5
    • Mammals 2.5
    • †Pterosaur 2.6
  • References 3
    • Notes 3.1
    • Literature 3.2
  • External links 4

Stratigraphic definitions

The original type locality for the Barremian stage is in the vicinity of the village of Barrême, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France. Henri Coquand defined the stage and named it in 1873.

The base of the Barremian is determined by the first appearance of the ammonites Spitidiscus hugii and Spitidiscus vandeckii. The end of the Barremian is determined by the geomagnetic reversal at the start of the M0r chronozone, which is biologically near the first appearance of the ammonite Paradeshayesites oglanlensis.

Subdivision

The Barremian is often subdivided into two substages or subages, Lower/Early and Upper/Late Barremian.

In the Tethys domain, the Barremian stage contains eleven ammonite biozones:

Palaeontology

Much knowledge about the Barremian fauna—especially regarding birds, mammals and pterosaurs—derived from the famous Yixian Formation of China, part of which dates from this stage.

Cephalopods

Ammonoidea

Annuloceras

Neocoleoids

Neocoleoids of the Barremian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Maioteuthis

Neololigosepia

Oxyteuthis

†Belemnites

Belemnites of the Barremian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Curtohibolites

Belemnites

Neohibolites

Oxyteuthis

Nautiloidea

Nautiloids of the Barremian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Eucymatoceras

An illustration of a variety of fossil nautiloids.

Palelialia

Pseudaturoidea

Chondrichthyes

Squamata

Dinosaurs (including birds)

Cerapoda

Cerapoda of the Barremian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Jinzhousaurus

China

Ponerosteus

Czech Republic

Fukuisaurus

Japan

Hypsilophodon

England, Spain, Portugal

Jeholosaurus

China

Cedrorestes

Utah, USA

Valdosaurus

Europe, Africa

Dakotadon

North America

Dollodon

Belgium, Germany, England

Iguanodon

Europe

Osmakasaurus

South Dakota, USA

Siluosaurus

Gansu, China

Hongshanosaurus

Liaoning, China

Psittacosaurus

China, Mongolia, Russia, possibly Thailand

†Other Cerapods

Other Cerapods of the Barremian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Stenopelix

Germany

Hongshanosaurus

Liaoning, China

Liaoceratops

Liaoning, China

Psittacosaurus

China, Mongolia, Russia, possibly Thailand

Sauropoda

Sauropods of the Barremian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Cedarosaurus

Utah, USA

Aragosaurus

Aragón, Spain

Amargasaurus

Neuquén, Argentina

Histriasaurus

Croatia

Eucamerotus

Isle of Wight, England

Oplosaurus

Isle of Wight, England

Amargatitanis

Neuquén, Argentina

Theropoda

Theropods of the Barremian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Fukuiraptor

Japan

Concavenator

Spain A sail-backed carcharodontosaurid

Longipteryx

Liaoning, China

"Proornis"

North Korea

Neovenator

Isle of Wight, England

Caudipteryx

Liaoning, China

Huaxiagnathus

Liaoning, China

Changchengornis

Liaoning, China

Microraptor

Liaoning, China

Sinornithosaurus

Liaoning, China

Utahraptor

Utah, USA

Concornis

Cuenca, Spain

Iberomesornis

Cuenca, Spain

Harpymimus

Gobi Desert, Mongolia

Yixianosaurus

Liaoning, China

Afrovenator

Niger, Africa

Sapeornis

Liaoning, China

Shenzhousaurus

Liaoning, China

Pelecanimimus

Cuenca, Spain

Incisivosaurus

Liaoning, China

Baryonyx

England, Spain, Portugal

Chilantaisaurus

China

Calamosaurus

Isle of Wight, England

Prodeinodon

China, Mongolia

Yaverlandia

Isle of Wight, England

Sinovenator

Liaoning, China

Falcarius

Utah, USA A therizinosaur that is one of the few North American varieties of its clade.

Thyreophora

Thyreophora of the Barremian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Liaoningosaurus

Liaoning, China

Gastonia

Utah, USA

Hoplitosaurus

South Dakota, USA

Polacanthus

England

Sauroplites

Gansu, China

Craterosaurus

England

Regnosaurus

Sussex, England

Mammals

Mammals of the Barremian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Eobaatar

several species from Hauterivian to Albian Spain, Mongolia
Skeleton of the primitive mammal Eomaia

Eomaia

Repenomamus

Pterosaurs

Liaoningopterus

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b See Gradstein et al. (2004) or the online geowhen database (link below)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Earliest occurrence: Upper Barremian
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Earliest occurrence: Lower Barremian
  4. ^ Only known from this stage

Literature

  • Cossmann, M. & Pelat, E. (1907): Le Barrémien supérieur à faciès Urgonien de Brouzet-lès-Alais (Gard). Mémoires de la Société Géologique de France, Paléontologie 15(37): 5-42. (French)
  • Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G.; (2004): A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press.
  • Guzhikov, A.Yu. & Baraboshkin, E.J. (2006): Assessment of diachronism of biostratigraphic boundaries by magnetochronological calibration of zonal scales for the Lower Cretaceous of the Tethyan and Boreal belts. Doklady Earth Sciences 409(6): 843-846. doi:10.1134/S1028334X06060018

External links

  • GeoWhen Database - Barremian
  • Mid-Cretaceous timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS
  • Stratigraphic chart of the Lower Cretaceous, at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy
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