World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Batak alphabet

Article Id: WHEBN0000334553
Reproduction Date:

Title: Batak alphabet  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Javanese script, Baybayin, Unicode character property, Brahmic scripts, Batak Karo language
Collection: Batak, Brahmic Scripts, Indonesian Scripts, North Sumatra, Scripts Encoded in Unicode 6.0
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Batak alphabet

Surat Batak
Type
Languages Batak languages
Time period
c. 1300–present
Parent systems
Origins of Brahmi script unclear. On Aramaic origin hypothesis: Proto-Sinaitic alphabet
Sister systems

Direct family relationships unclear. Sister scripts on hypothesis of common Kawi origin:

Balinese
Baybayin
Kulitan
Buhid
Hanunó'o
Javanese
Lontara
Old Sundanese
Rencong
Rejang
Tagbanwa
ISO 15924 Batk, 365
Direction Left-to-right
Unicode alias
Batak
U+1BC0–U+1BFF

The Batak script, natively known as surat Batak, surat na sapulu sia (the nineteen letters), or si-sia-sia, is an abugida used to write the Austronesian Batak languages spoken by several million people on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. The script may derived from the Kawi and Pallava script, ultimately derived from the Brahmi script of India, or from the hypothetical Proto-Sumatran script influenced by Pallava.[1]

Contents

  • History 1
  • Origin 2
  • Structure 3
  • Letters 4
  • Diacritics 5
    • Ligatures with U 5.1
    • Tompi 5.2
    • Placement of diacritics for Ng and H 5.3
    • Diacritic reordering for closed syllables 5.4
  • Punctuation and ornaments 6
  • Unicode 7
    • Block 7.1
    • Rendering 7.2
  • Gallery 8
  • Citations 9
  • Sources 10
  • External links 11

History

In most Batak communities, only the priests, or datu were able to use the Batak script, and used it mainly for magical texts and calendars. After the arrival of Europeans in the Batak lands, first German missionaries and, from 1878 onwards, the Dutch, the Batak script was, alongside the Roman script, taught in the schools, and teaching and religious materials were printed in the Batak script. Soon after the first World War the missionaries decided to discontinue printing books in the Batak script. The script soon fell out of use and is now only used for ornamental purposes.

Origin

The Batak script was probably derived from Pallava and Old Kawi alphabets, which ultimately were derived from the Brahmi alphabet, the root of almost all the Indic and Southeast Asian abugidas.

Structure

Batak is written from bottom to top within one column, and left to right for columns. Like most abugidas, each consonant has an inherent vowel of /a/, unless there is a diacritic (in Toba Batak called pangolat) to indicate the lack of a vowel. Other vowels, final ŋ, and final velar fricative [x] are indicated by diacritics, which appear above, below, or after the letter. For example, ba is written ba (one letter); bi is written ba.i (i follows the consonant); bang is written baŋ (ŋ is above the consonant); and bing is baŋ.i. Final consonants are written with the pangolat (here represented by "#"): bam is ba.ma.#. However, bim is written ba.ma.i.#: the first diacritic belongs to the first consonant, and the second belongs to the second consonant, but both are written at the end of the entire syllable. Unlike most Brahmi-based scripts, Batak does not form consonant conjuncts.

Letters

Letters are called sia. Each consonant has an inherent vowel of /a/. The script varies by region and language. The major variants are between Karo, Mandailing, Pakpak/Dairi, Simalungun/Timur, and Toba:

Sia (Letters)
IPA a ha ka ba pa na wa ga dʒa da ra ma ta sa ja ŋa la ɲa tʃa nda mba i u
Transcription a ha ka ba pa na wa ga ja da ra ma ta sa ja nga la nya ca nda mba i u
Karo
Mandailing
Pakpak
Toba
Simalungun

Alternate forms:
^1 (used in Mandailing) ^2 ^3 ^4 ^5 ^6

Diacritics

Diacritics are used to change the pronunciation of a letter. They can change the vowel from the inherent /a/, mark a final [velar nasal] /ŋ/, mark a final velar fricative /x/, or indicate a final consonant with no vowel:

Latin
Trans.
Batak Diacritics      Latin
Trans.
Batak Diacritics with /ka/
Karo Mand. Pakp. Sima. Toba Karo Mand. Pakp. Sima. Toba
-a ka
-e

ke

-i
ki
-o
ko
-ou kou
-u ku
-ng kang
-h kah
k

Ligatures with U

The diacritic for U used by Mandailing, Pakpak, Simalungun, and Toba can form ligatures with its base letter:

Batak Script Description
 +   a + -u = u
 + a + -u = u (Simalungun)
 +   ha + -u = hu (Mandailing)
 +   ha + -u = hu (Simalungun)
 +   ha + -u = hu
 +   ka + -u = ku (Mandailing)
 +   ba + -u = bu
 +   pa + -u = pu (Mandailing)
 +   pa + -u = pu (Pakpak, Toba)
 +   pa + -u = pu (Simalungun)
 +   na + -u = nu
 +   na + -u = nu (Mandailing)
 +   wa + -u = wu (Mandailing, Toba)
 +   wa + -u = wu (Pakpak, Toba)
 +   wa + -u = wu (Simalungun)
 +   ga + -u = gu
 +   ga + -u = gu (Simalungun)
 +   ja + -u = ju
Batak Script Description
 +   da + -u = du
 +   ra + -u = ru
 +   ra + -u = ru (Simalungun)
 +   ma + -u = mu
 +   ma + -u = mu (Simalungun)
 +   ta + -u = tu
 +   ta + -u = tu
 +   sa + -u = su (Pakpak)
 +   sa + -u = su (Mandailing)
 +   sa + -u = su (Mandailing)
 +   sa + -u = su (Simalungun)
 +   ya + -u = yu
 +   ya + -u = yu (Simalungun)
 +   nga + -u = ngu
 +   la + -u = lu
 +   la + -u = lu (Simalungun)
 +   nya + -u = nyu
 +   ca + -u = cu (Mandailing)

Tompi

In Mandailing, the diacritic tompi can be used to change the sound of some letters:

ha  + tompi ka sa  + tompi ca
 +    +  
 +    +  
 +    +  

Placement of diacritics for Ng and H

The diacritics for Ng () and H () are usually written above spacing vowel diacritics instead of above the base letter.
Examples: ping, pong, peh, and pih.

Diacritic reordering for closed syllables

Vowel diacritics are reordered for closed syllables (that is, syllables where the final consonant has no vowel). Consonants with no vowel are marked by the Batak pangolat or panongonan diacritic, depending on the language. When they are used for a closed syllable (like "tip"), both the vowel diacritic and the pangolat/panongonan are written at the end of the syllable.

Examples of closed syllables using pangolat:

ta  +  vowel  +  pa  +  pangolat  =  syllable
+ + =
ta + pa + pangolat = tap
+ + + =
ta + e + pa + pangolat = tep
+ + + =
ta + e + pa + pangolat = tep
+ + + =
ta + i + pa + pangolat = tip
+ + + =
ta + o + pa + pangolat = top
+ + + =
ta + u + pa + pangolat = tup

Punctuation and ornaments

Batak is normally written without spaces or punctuation (as scriptio continua). However, special marks or bindu are occasionally used. They vary greatly in size and design from manuscript to manuscript.

Examples Name Function

Bindu na metek (small bindu) Begins paragraphs and stanzas
Bindu panarboras (rice-shaped bindu) Variant of bindu na metek, serves same function
Bindu judul (title bindu) Separates a title from the body of the text
Bindu pangolat Trailing punctuation

Unicode

Batak script was added to the Unicode Standard in October 2010 with the release of version 6.0.

Block

The Unicode block for Batak is U+1BC0–U+1BFF:

Batak[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1BCx
U+1BDx
U+1BEx
U+1BFx ᯿
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 8.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Rendering

Unicode fonts for Batak must handle several requirements to properly render text:

Rendering Requirements Examples
Latin Trans. Image Unicode Text
Correct placement of one or more diacritics  ke ᯂᯩ
ke (Mand.) ᯄ᯦ᯩ
ping ᯇᯪᯰ
reng ᯒᯩᯰ
Ligatures with U hu (Mand.) ᯄᯮ
hu (Sima.) ᯃᯮ
gu ᯎᯮ
lu ᯞᯮ
Diacritic reordering for closed syllables tip ᯖᯪᯇ᯲

Gallery

Citations

  1. ^ Uli Kozok. "Sejarah Aksara Batak". Retrieved 17 May 2014. 

Sources

  • Kozok, Uli (January 2009). Surat Batak: Sejarah Perkembangan Tulisan Batak : Berikut Pedoman Menulis Aksara Batak Dan Cap Si Singamangaraja XII (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Gramedia.  
  •  
  • Kozok, Uli. [Category:All articles with dead external links] "Kursus Kilat Aksara Batak (Quick Course in Batak Script)"] (in Indonesian). Retrieved 20 April 2011. 

External links

  • Entry on Batak at Omniglot.com – A guide to writing systems
  • Transtoba2 – Roman to Toba Batak script transliteration software by Uli Kozok and Leander Seige (GNU GPL)
  • Uli Kozok's Batak Script website with free Batak fonts.
  • http://unicode-table.com/en/sections/batak/
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.