World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Bengal Fan

Article Id: WHEBN0003145587
Reproduction Date:

Title: Bengal Fan  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Ganges, Landforms of India, Abyssal fan, Sediments, Ninety East Ridge
Collection: Ganges, Landforms of Bangladesh, Landforms of India, Sediments
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Bengal Fan

The Bengal Fan, also known as the Ganges Fan, is the largest submarine fan on Earth. The fan is about 3000 km long, 1000 km wide with a maximum thickness of 16.5 km. The fan resulted from the uplift and erosion of the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau produced by the collision between the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. Most of the sediment is supplied by the confluent Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers through the Ganges Delta in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India, with several other large rivers in Bangladesh and India providing smaller contributions.[1] Turbidity currents have transported the sediment through a series of submarine canyons, some of which are more than 1,500 miles (2,414 km) in length, to be deposited in the Bay of Bengal up to 30 degrees latitude from where it began. To date, the oldest sediments recovered from the Bengal fan are from Early Miocene age.[2] Their mineralogical and geochemical characteristics allow to identify their Himalayan origin and demonstrate that the Himalaya was already a major mountain range 20 million years ago.[3]

The fan completely covers the floor of the Bay of Bengal.[4] It is bordered to the west by the continental slope of eastern India, to the north by the continental slope of Bangladesh and to east by the northern part of Sunda Trench off Myanmar and the Andaman Islands, the accretionary wedge associated with subduction of the Indo-Australian Plate beneath the Sunda Plate and continues along the west side of the Ninetyeast Ridge.[4][5] The Nicobar Fan, another lobe of the fan, lies east of the Ninetyeast Ridge.[5]

The fan is now being explored as a possible source of fossil fuels for the surrounding developing nations.

The fan was first delineated and named by Joseph Curray and David Moore following a geological and geophysical survey in 1968.[5][6]

References

  1. ^ Curray, Joseph R.; Frans J. Emmel; David G. Moore (December 2002). "The Bengal Fan: morphology, geometry, stratigraphy, history and processes". Marine and Petroleum Geology (Elsevier Science Ltd) 19 (10): 1191–1223.  
  2. ^ Cochran, J.R.; Stow, D.A.V.; et al. (1989). "116 Initial Reports Table of Contents". Proc. ODP, Init. Repts. (Ocean Drilling Program College Station, TX) 116.  
  3. ^ France-Lanord, Christian; Derry L.; Michard A. (1993). "Evolution of the Himalaya since Miocene time: isotopic and sedimentological evidence from the Bengal Fan". Geological Society Special Publication 74: 603–621.  
  4. ^ a b Tilmann Schwenk; Volkhard Spiess (2009). "ARCHITECTURE AND STRATIGRAPHY OF THE BENGAL FAN AS RESPONSE TO TECTONIC AND CLIMATE REVEALED FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION SEISMIC DATA". SEPM Special Publication, No. 92. External Controls on Deep-Water Depositional Systems. SEPM ( 
  5. ^ a b c France-Lanord, Christian; Volkhard Spiess; Peter Molnar; Joseph R. Curray (March 2000). "Summary on the Bengal Fan: An introduction to a drilling proposal" (PDF). Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. 
  6. ^ Curray, Joseph R.; David G. Moore (March 1971). "Growth of the Bengal Deep-Sea Fan and Denudation in the Himalayas". Geological Society of America Bulletin 82 (3): 563–572.  

Further reading

  • Bastia, Rabi; Suman Das; M. Radhakrishna (October 2010). "Pre- and post-collisional depositional history in the upper and middle Bengal fan and evaluation of deepwater reservoir potential along the northeast Continental Margin of India". Marine and Petroleum Geology 27 (10): 2051–2061.  
  • Subrahmanyam, V.; K. S. Krishna; M. V. Ramana; K. S. R. Murthy (2008). "Marine geophysical investigations across the submarine canyon (Swatch-of-No-Ground), northern Bay of Bengal" (PDF). Current Science (Indian Academy of Sciences) 94 (4): 507–513. 


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.