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Białystok Ghetto Uprising

Białystok Ghetto Uprising
Białystok
Białystok ghetto, 1941-1943. The area of the Uprising marked in brown, with top left-hand arrow pointing to the breakout area
1943 ruins
Smoldering ghetto ruins, 1943
Location Białystok Ghetto, Nazi occupied Poland
Launched August 16, 1943
Suppressed August 17, 1943

The Białystok Ghetto Uprising was a Jewish insurrection in the [2]

The revolt began upon the German announcement of mass deportations from the Ghetto. The main objective was to break the German siege and allow the maximum number of Jews to escape into the neighboring Knyszyn (Knyszyński) Forest. A group of about 300 to 500 insurgents armed with 25 rifles and 100 pistols as well as home-made [2]

Timeline

The Białystok Ghetto was set up by Nazi Germany in occupied Aktion Reinhard. The final liquidation of the Ghetto was attempted on August 16, 1943 by regiments of the German SS reinforced by Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Latvian auxiliaries ("Hiwis"),[3] known as the "Trawniki men" .[4] During the night of August 16, 1943, several hundred Polish Jews started an armed uprising against the troops carrying out liquidation of the Ghetto.[3] The guerillas led by Mordechaj Tenenbaum and Daniel Moszkowicz were armed with only one machine gun, rifles, several dozen pistols, Molotov cocktails and bottles filled with acid. As with the earlier Warsaw Ghetto Uprising extinguished in May 1943, the Białystok uprising had no chances for military success. However, it was seen as a way to die in combat rather than in German camps. A Betar youth commander was Yitzhak Fleischer,[5] also spelled Fleisher,[6] or Berl Fleischer according to different source.[7]

The fights in isolated pockets of resistance lasted for several days, but the defence was broken almost instantly with a tank sent into the ghetto by [1] Approximately 1,200 children were sent to Theresienstadt concentration camp and later to Auschwitz.

Several dozen guerillas managed to break through to the forests surrounding World War II, only several hundred survived the Holocaust.

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c "The anniversary of the uprising in Bialystok ghetto".  
  2. ^ a b "Białystok ghetto resistance. Part of: History of Jewish community in Białystok".  
  3. ^ a b c Translated from Polish to Hebrew by Tzipora Eker-Survitz. Translated from Hebrew to English by Bella Bryks-Klein and edited by Ada Holtzman, Tel Aviv – September 2010 (December 1945). "Testimony of Dr. Szymon Datner". Walka i Zaglada Bialostockiego Ghetta. Retrieved July 20, 2011. 
  4. ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski (2006). "Ukrainian Collaboration". Poland's Holocaust. McFarland. p. 217.  
  5. ^ "Yitzhak Fleischer, commander of Betar fighters in the Bialystok ghetto uprising". Ghetto Fighters House Archives. Retrieved April 8, 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c Sara Bender (2008). The Jews of Bialystok During World War II and the Holocaust (Google Books preview). The End of the Ghetto (UPNE). pp. 253–263.  
  7. ^ Alfred Katz (1970). Poland's Ghettos at War (Library of Congress: 78-120535). Google Book preview (Twayne Publishers). p. 90. Retrieved 19 March 2015. In the Bialystok Ghetto 

Books

  • B. Mark, „Ruch oporu w getcie białostockim. Samoobrona-zagłada-powstanie”, Warszawa 1952.
  • „Obozy hitlerowskie na ziemiach polskich 1939 – 1945. Informator encyklopedyczny.”, Warszawa 1979 r.
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