World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Bubble nest

Article Id: WHEBN0004010348
Reproduction Date:

Title: Bubble nest  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Fish reproduction, Diversity of fish, Digital Fish Library, Glossohyal, Operculum papillare
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Bubble nest

Dwarf gourami bubble nest made of bubbles, floating plants and plant parts which were torn from a Hydrocotyle by the gourami male.

Bubble nests, also spelled bubblenests or bubble-nests and called foam nests, are created by some fish and frog species as floating masses of bubbles blown with an oral secretion, saliva bubbles, and occasionally aquatic plants, or an area for egg deposit attached at the bottom. Fish that build and guard bubble nests are known as aphrophils.[1] Aphrophils include gouramis (including Betta species) and the synbranchid eel Monopterus alba in Asia, Ctenopoma (Anabantidae), Polycentropsis (Nandidae), and Hepsetus odoe (the only member of Hepsetidae) in Africa, and callichthyines and the electric eel in South America.[1] Most, if not all, fish that construct floating bubble nests live in tropical, oxygen-depleted standing waters.[1] Also, some sunfish and cichlids create bubblenests. Anabantidae are the most commonly recognized family of bubblenest makers. The nests are constructed as a place for fertilized eggs to be deposited while incubating and guarded by the male until the fry hatch.


Bubbles of love: Betta splendens build nests of varying sizes
Betta splendens fry in a bubble nest

Bubble nests are built even when not in presence of female or fry (though often a female swimming past will trigger the frantic construction of the nest). Males will build bubble nests of various sizes and thicknesses, depending on the male's territory and personality. Some males build constantly, some occasionally, some when introduced to a female and some do not even begin until after spawning. Some nests will be large, some small, some thick.

Various things have been shown to stimulate bubble nest construction, such as quick temperature changes, barometric changes, fluctuations in rainfall, materials in the tank, and presence of other males or females.

The nests are built by the male (sometimes females) and their size, position and shape depends on the species. They are often built near an object that breaks the surface of the water, which forms a base for the nest.

Bubble nests created by male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) are made from air bubbles coated with saliva to increase durability. The creation of the bubbles is audible and often frantic.

Bubble nests and breeding

All species of bubble nesters continue parental care after construction of the floating bubble nest and spawning.[1] After spawning, the eggs float up into the bubble nest, or are carried there, held in the mouth by the male. The male lodges them in the nest to protect them, and then protects the brood by chasing away the female and any other intruders, concentrating on the eggs in the nest, retrieving any eggs or fry that fall from the nest and keeping the nest in repair. The male will guard the eggs constantly until the fry hatch in 24–48 hours and be suspended from the nest. For the next few weeks, they will stay nearby being tended by the male. [2] During the spawning embrace, the male betta (with long fins) wraps his body around the female in such a way that their genital openings almost lie opposite each other. Spawning takes place near the bubblenest, usually directly underneath it. During courtship the fins of the females are often split apart.



Several different frog clades include species that make bubble nests.[4] Frogs use bubble nests as a form of protection for their eggs.[5]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Hostache, Gérard; Mol, Jan H. (1998). "Reproductive biology of the neotropical amoured catfish Hoplosternum littorale (Siluriformes - Callichthyidae): a synthesis stressing the role of the floating bubble nest". Aquat. Living Resour. 11 (3): 173–185.  
  2. ^ Axelrod, Herbert (1995). Dr. Axelrod's MINI-ATLAS of FRESHWATER AQUARIUM FISHES. Neptune City, NJ: T.F.H. Publications. pp. 896–897. 
  3. ^ Axelrod, Herbert (1995). Dr. Axelrod's MINI-ATLAS of FRESHWATER AQUARIUM FISHES. Neptune City, NJ: T.F.H. Publications. p. 896. 
  4. ^ Kentwood D. Wells (2010). The Ecology and Behavior of Amphibians. University of Chicago Press. p. 472.  
  5. ^ Clive Roots (2006). Nocturnal Animals. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 14.  

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.