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By-product

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Title: By-product  
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By-product

A by-product is a secondary product derived from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction. It is not the primary product or service being produced. In the context of production, a by-product can be defined as the 'output from a joint production process that is minor in quantity and/or net realizable value (NVR) when compared to the main products'.[1] Because they are deemed to have no influence on reported financial results, by-products do not receive allocations of joint costs. By-products also by convention are not inventoried, but the NRV from by-products is typically recognized as 'other income' or as a reduction of joint production processing costs when the by-product is produced.[2] A by-product can be useful and marketable or it can be considered waste.

IEA offers the following definition for the purpose of life-cycle assessment:[3]

... main products, co-products (which involve similar revenues to the main product), by-products (which result in smaller revenues), and waste products (which provide little or no revenue).

Contents

  • Major by-products 1
    • Animal sources 1.1
    • Vegetation 1.2
    • Minerals and petrochemicals 1.3
    • Other 1.4
  • See also 2
  • References 3

Major by-products

Animal sources

Vegetation

Minerals and petrochemicals

Other

See also

References

  1. ^ Wouters, Mark; Selto, Frank H.; Hilton, Ronald W.; Maher, Michael W. (2012): Cost Management: Strategies for Business Decisions, International Edition, McGraw-Hill, p. 535.
  2. ^ World Trade Organization (2004): United States - Final dumping determination on softwood lumber from Canada, WT/DS264/AB/R, 11 August 2004.
  3. ^ BIOMITRE Technical Manual, Horne, R. E. and Matthews, R., November 2004
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