World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Chakma alphabet

Article Id: WHEBN0014447183
Reproduction Date:

Title: Chakma alphabet  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Unicode character property, Brahmic scripts, Script (Unicode), Kalinga alphabet, Tocharian alphabet
Collection: Alphabets, Brahmic Scripts, Scripts Encoded in Unicode 6.1
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Chakma alphabet

Chakma
Type
Languages Chakma language
Parent systems
ISO 15924 Cakm, 349
Direction Left-to-right
Unicode alias
Chakma
U+11100–U+1114F

The Chakma alphabet (Ajhā pāṭh), also called Ojhapath, Ojhopath, Aaojhapath, is an abugida used for the Chakma language and which is being adapted for the Tanchangya language.[1] The forms of the letters are quite similar to those of the Burmese script.

Contents

  • Structure 1
    • Vowels 1.1
    • Consonants with killed Vowels and Conjunct Consonants 1.2
  • Letter, punctuation and digit names 2
  • Keyboard layout 3
  • Unicode 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6
  • Bibliography 7

Structure

Chakma is of the Brahmic type: the consonant letters contain an inherent vowel. Unusually for Brahmic scripts, the inherent vowel in Chakma is a long 'ā' () as opposed to short 'a' (ə) which is standard in most other languages of india such as Hindi, Marathi or Tamil. Consonant clusters are written with conjunct characters, and a visible vowel killer shows the deletion of the inherent vowel when there is no conjunct.

Vowels

Four independent vowels exist: 𑄃 a, 𑄄 i, 𑄅 u, and 𑄆 e. Other vowels in initial position are formed by adding the vowel sign to 𑄃 a, as in 𑄃𑄩 ī, 𑄃𑄫 ū, 𑄃𑄭 ai, 𑄃𑄰 oi. Some modern writers are generalizing this spelling in 𑄃𑄨 i, 𑄃𑄪 u, and 𑄬𑄃 e.

Chakma vowel signs with the letter 𑄇 ka are given below:

𑄇 Ka = 𑄇 Ka

𑄇𑄧 Ka = 𑄇 Kā + 𑄧 - a (11127)

𑄇𑄨 Ki = 𑄇 Kā + 𑄨 - i (11128)

𑄇𑄩 Kī = 𑄇 Kā + 𑄩 - ī (11129)

𑄇𑄪 Ku = 𑄇 Kā + 𑄪 - u (1112A)

𑄇𑄫 Kū = 𑄇 Kā + 𑄫 - ū (1112B)

𑄬𑄇 Ke = 𑄇 Kā + 𑄬 - e (1112C)

𑄇𑄭 Kāi = 𑄇 Kā + 𑄭 - āi (1112D)

𑄇𑄮 Ko = 𑄇 Kā + 𑄮 - o (1112E)

𑄇𑄯 Kau = 𑄇 Kā + 𑄯 - au (1112F)

𑄇𑄰 Koi = 𑄇 Kā + 𑄰 - oi (11130)

𑄇𑄀 Kaṃ = 𑄇 Kā + 𑄀 - ṃ (11100)

𑄇𑄁 Kaṃ = 𑄇 Kā + 𑄁 - ṃ (11101)

𑄇𑄂 Kaḥ = 𑄇 Kā + 𑄂 - ḥ (11102)

𑄇𑄴 K = 𑄇 Kā + 𑄴 - MAAYYAA (11134)

One of the interesting features of Chakma writing is that candrabindu (cānaphudā) can be used together with anusvara (ekaphudā) and visarga (dviphudā):

𑄃𑄳𑄂𑄀 Aḥṃ = 𑄃 ā + 𑄂 h + 𑄀ṃ

𑄃𑄳𑄁𑄀 Aṃṃ = 𑄃 ā + 𑄁 ṃ + 𑄀ṃ

𑄅𑄳𑄁𑄀 Uṃṃ = 𑄅 u + 𑄁 ṃ + 𑄀ṃ

𑄟𑄀𑄪 Muṃ = 𑄟 mā + 𑄪 u + 𑄀ṃ

Consonants with killed Vowels and Conjunct Consonants

Like other Brahmic scripts, Chakma makes use of the maayyaa (killer) to invoke conjoined consonants. In the past, practice was much more common than it is today. Like the Myanmar script, Chakma is encoded with two vowel-killing characters in order to conform to modern user expectations. As shown above, most letters have their vowels killed with the use of the explicit maayyaa:

𑄇𑄴 k = 𑄇 kā + 𑄴 MAAYYAA

In 2001 an orthographic reform was recommended in the book Cāṅmā pattham pāt which would limit the standard repertoire of conjuncts to those composed with the five letters 𑄠 yā, 𑄢 rā, 𑄣 lā, 𑄤 wā, and 𑄚 nā. The four here are the most widely accepted repertoire of conjuncts.

ya: X + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄠 yā

𑄇𑄳𑄡 𑄈𑄳𑄡 𑄉𑄳𑄡 𑄊𑄳𑄡 𑄋𑄳𑄡 - 𑄌𑄳𑄡 𑄍𑄳𑄡 𑄎𑄳𑄡 𑄏𑄳𑄡 𑄐𑄳𑄡 - 𑄑𑄳𑄡 𑄒𑄳𑄡 𑄓𑄳𑄡 𑄔𑄳𑄡 𑄕𑄳𑄡

𑄖𑄳𑄡 𑄗𑄳𑄡 𑄘𑄳𑄡 𑄙𑄳𑄡 𑄚𑄳𑄡 - 𑄛𑄳𑄡 𑄜𑄳𑄡 𑄝𑄳𑄡 𑄞𑄳𑄡 𑄟𑄳𑄡 - 𑄦𑄳𑄡 𑄠𑄳𑄡 𑄡𑄳𑄡 𑄢𑄳𑄡 𑄤𑄳𑄡 𑄥𑄳𑄡

ra: X + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄢 rā

𑄇𑄳𑄢 𑄈𑄳𑄢 𑄉𑄳𑄢 𑄊𑄳𑄢 𑄋𑄳𑄢 - 𑄌𑄳𑄢 𑄍𑄳𑄢 𑄎𑄳𑄢 𑄏𑄳𑄢 𑄐𑄳𑄢 - 𑄑𑄳𑄢 𑄒𑄳𑄢 𑄓𑄳𑄢 𑄔𑄳𑄢 𑄕𑄳𑄢

𑄖𑄳𑄢 𑄗𑄳𑄢 𑄘𑄳𑄢 𑄙𑄳𑄢 𑄚𑄳𑄢 - 𑄛𑄳𑄢 𑄜𑄳𑄢 𑄝𑄳𑄢 𑄞𑄳𑄢 𑄟𑄳𑄢 - 𑄦𑄳𑄢 𑄠𑄳𑄢 𑄡𑄳𑄢 𑄢𑄳𑄡 𑄤𑄳𑄢 𑄥𑄳𑄢

la: X + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄣 lā

𑄇𑄳𑄣 𑄈𑄳𑄣 𑄉𑄳𑄣 𑄊𑄳𑄣 𑄋𑄳𑄣 - 𑄌𑄳𑄣 𑄍𑄳𑄣 𑄎𑄳𑄣 𑄏𑄳𑄣 𑄐𑄳𑄣 - 𑄑𑄳𑄣 𑄒𑄳𑄣 𑄓𑄳𑄣 𑄔𑄳𑄣 𑄕𑄳𑄣

𑄖𑄳𑄣 𑄗𑄳𑄣 𑄘𑄳𑄣 𑄙𑄳𑄣 𑄚𑄳𑄣 - 𑄛𑄳𑄣 𑄜𑄳𑄣 𑄝𑄳𑄣 𑄞𑄳𑄣 𑄟𑄳𑄣 - 𑄦𑄳𑄣 𑄠𑄳𑄣 𑄡𑄳𑄣 𑄢𑄳𑄣 𑄥𑄳𑄣

wa: X + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄤 wā

𑄇𑄳𑄤 𑄈𑄳𑄤 𑄉𑄳𑄤 𑄊𑄳𑄤 𑄋𑄳𑄤 - 𑄌𑄳𑄤 𑄍𑄳𑄤 𑄎𑄳𑄤 𑄏𑄳𑄤 𑄐𑄳𑄤 - 𑄑𑄳𑄤 𑄒𑄳𑄤 𑄓𑄳𑄤 𑄔𑄳𑄤 𑄕𑄳𑄤

𑄖𑄳𑄤 𑄗𑄳𑄤 𑄘𑄳𑄤 𑄙𑄳𑄤 𑄚𑄳𑄤 - 𑄛𑄳𑄤 𑄜𑄳𑄤 𑄝𑄳𑄤 𑄞𑄳𑄤 𑄟𑄳𑄤 - 𑄦𑄳𑄤 𑄠𑄳𑄤 𑄡𑄳𑄤 𑄢𑄳𑄤 𑄥𑄳𑄤

No separate conjunct forms of subjoined full-form -yā or -rā appear to exist. The fifth of these conjuncts, the -na conjunct, is exemplary of the orthographic shift which has taken place in the Chakma language.

na: X + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄚 nā

𑄇𑄳𑄚 𑄈𑄳𑄚 𑄉𑄳𑄚 𑄊𑄳𑄚 𑄋𑄳𑄚 - 𑄌𑄳𑄚 𑄍𑄳𑄚 𑄎𑄳𑄚 𑄏𑄳𑄚 𑄐𑄳𑄚 - 𑄑𑄳𑄚 𑄒𑄳𑄚 𑄓𑄳𑄚 𑄔𑄳𑄚 𑄕𑄳𑄚

𑄖𑄳𑄚 𑄗𑄳𑄚 𑄘𑄳𑄚 𑄙𑄳𑄚 𑄚𑄳𑄚 - 𑄛𑄳𑄚 𑄜𑄳𑄚 𑄝𑄳𑄚 𑄞𑄳𑄚 𑄟𑄳𑄚 - 𑄦𑄳𑄚 𑄠𑄳𑄚 𑄡𑄳𑄚 𑄢𑄳𑄚 𑄥𑄳𑄚

While some writers would indeed write kakna (in ligating style) as 𑄇𑄇𑄳𑄚 or (in subjoining style) as 𑄇𑄇𑄳𑄚, most now would probably expect it to be written as 𑄇𑄇𑄴𑄚. The ligating style of glyphs is now considered old-fashioned. Thus, taking the letter 𑄟 mā as the second element, while the glyph shapes 𑄇𑄳𑄟 kmā, 𑄖𑄳𑄟 tmā, 𑄚𑄳𑄟 nmā, 𑄝𑄳𑄝 bbā, 𑄟𑄳𑄟 mmā, 𑄣𑄳𑄣 llā, 𑄥𑄳𑄟 smā, and 𑄦𑄳𑄟 hmā are attested, most users now prefer the glyph shapes 𑄇𑄳𑄟 kmā, 𑄖𑄳𑄟 tmā, 𑄚𑄳𑄟 nmā, 𑄝𑄳𑄝 bbā, 𑄟𑄳𑄟 mmā, 𑄣𑄳𑄣 llā, 𑄥𑄳𑄟 smā, and 𑄦𑄳𑄟 hmā. Again, this distinction is stylistic and not orthographic.

The 2004 book Phadagaṅ shows examples of the five conjuncts above together alongside conjuncts formed with 𑄝 bā, 𑄟 mā, and 𑄦 hā. These are all formed by simple subjoining.

ba: X + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄝 nā

𑄇𑄳𑄝 𑄈𑄳𑄝 𑄉𑄳𑄝 𑄊𑄳𑄝 𑄋𑄳𑄝 - 𑄌𑄳𑄝 𑄍𑄳𑄝 𑄎𑄳𑄝 𑄏𑄳𑄝 𑄐𑄳𑄌 - 𑄑𑄳𑄝 𑄒𑄳𑄝 𑄓𑄳𑄝 𑄔𑄳𑄚 𑄕𑄳𑄝

𑄖𑄳𑄝 𑄗𑄳𑄝 𑄘𑄳𑄝 𑄙𑄳𑄝 𑄚𑄳𑄚 - 𑄛𑄳𑄝 𑄜𑄳𑄝 𑄝𑄳𑄝 𑄞𑄳𑄝 𑄟𑄳𑄝 - 𑄠𑄳𑄝 𑄡𑄳𑄝 𑄢𑄳𑄝 𑄣𑄳𑄝 𑄤𑄳𑄝 𑄥𑄳𑄝

ma: X + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄟 nā

𑄇𑄳𑄟 𑄈𑄳𑄟 𑄉𑄳𑄟 𑄊𑄳𑄟 𑄋𑄳𑄟 - 𑄌𑄳𑄟 𑄍𑄳𑄟 𑄎𑄳𑄟 𑄏𑄳𑄟 𑄐𑄳𑄟 - 𑄑𑄳𑄟 𑄒𑄳𑄟 𑄓𑄳𑄟 𑄔𑄳𑄟 𑄕𑄳𑄟

𑄖𑄳𑄟 𑄗𑄳𑄟 𑄘𑄳𑄟 𑄙𑄳𑄟 𑄚𑄳𑄟 - 𑄛𑄳𑄟 𑄜𑄳𑄟 𑄝𑄳𑄟 𑄞𑄳𑄟 𑄟𑄳𑄟 - 𑄠𑄳𑄟 𑄡𑄳𑄟 𑄢𑄳𑄟 𑄣𑄳𑄟 𑄤𑄳𑄟 𑄥𑄳𑄟

ha: X + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄦 nā

𑄇𑄳𑄦 𑄈𑄳𑄦 𑄉𑄳𑄦 𑄊𑄳𑄦 𑄋𑄳𑄦 - 𑄌𑄳𑄦 𑄍𑄳𑄦 𑄎𑄳𑄦 𑄏𑄳𑄦 𑄐𑄳𑄦 - 𑄑𑄳𑄦 𑄒𑄳𑄦 𑄓𑄳𑄦 𑄔𑄳𑄦 𑄕𑄳𑄦

𑄖𑄳𑄦 𑄗𑄳𑄦 𑄘𑄳𑄦 𑄙𑄳𑄦 𑄚𑄳𑄦 - 𑄛𑄳𑄦 𑄜𑄳𑄦 𑄝𑄳𑄦 𑄞𑄳𑄦 𑄟𑄳𑄦 - 𑄠𑄳𑄦 𑄡𑄳𑄦 𑄢𑄳𑄦 𑄣𑄳𑄦 𑄤𑄳𑄦 𑄥𑄳𑄦

In the 1982 book Cāṅmār āg pudhi a much wider range of conjunct pairs is shown, some of them with fairly complicated glyphs:

𑄇𑄳𑄇 Kkā = 𑄇 Kā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄇 Kā

𑄇𑄳𑄑 Ktā = 𑄇 Kā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄑 Tā

𑄇𑄳𑄖 Ktā = 𑄇 Kā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄖 Tā

𑄇𑄳𑄟 Kmā = 𑄇 Kā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄟 Mā

𑄇𑄳𑄌 Kcā = 𑄇 Kā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄌 Cā

𑄋𑄳𑄇 ńkā = 𑄋 ńā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄇 Kā

𑄋𑄳𑄉 ńkā = 𑄋 ńā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄉 Gā

𑄌𑄳𑄌 ccā = 𑄌 cā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄌 Cā

𑄌𑄳𑄍 Cchā = 𑄌 Cā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄍 Chā

𑄐𑄳𑄌 ñcā = 𑄐 ñā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄌 Cā

𑄐𑄳𑄎 ñjā = 𑄐 ñā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄎 Jā

𑄐𑄳𑄏 Ñjhā = 𑄐 ñā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄏 Jhā

𑄑𑄳𑄑 Ttā = 𑄑 Tā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄑 Tā

𑄖𑄳𑄖 Ttā = 𑄖 Tā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄖 Tā

𑄖𑄳𑄟 Tmā = 𑄖 Tā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄟 mā

𑄖𑄳𑄗 Tthā = 𑄖 Tā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄗 Thā

𑄘𑄳𑄘 Ddā = 𑄘 Dā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄘 Dā

𑄘𑄳𑄙 Ddhā = 𑄘 Dā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄙 Dhā

𑄚𑄳𑄖 ntā = 𑄚 nā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄖 tā

𑄚𑄳𑄗 nthā = 𑄚 nā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄗 thā

𑄚𑄳𑄟 nmā = 𑄚 nā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄟 mā

𑄛𑄳𑄛 ppā = 𑄛 pā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄛 pā

𑄝𑄳𑄝 bbā = 𑄝 bā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄝 bā

𑄟𑄳𑄟 mmā = 𑄟 mā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄟 mā

𑄎𑄳𑄎 jjā = 𑄎 jā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄎 jā

𑄣𑄳𑄇 lkā = 𑄣 lā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄇 kā

𑄣𑄳𑄉 lgā = 𑄣 lā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄉 gā

𑄣𑄳𑄣 llā = 𑄣 lā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄣 lā

𑄣𑄳𑄑 ltā = 𑄣 lā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄑 tā

𑄣𑄳𑄛 lpā = 𑄣 lā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄛 pā

𑄣𑄳𑄍 lchā = 𑄣 lā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄍 chā

𑄥𑄳𑄑 stā = 𑄥 sā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄑 tā

𑄥𑄳𑄇 skā = 𑄥 sā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄇 kā

𑄥𑄳𑄛 spā = 𑄥 sā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄛 pā

𑄥𑄳𑄟 smā = 𑄥 sā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄟 mā

𑄦𑄳𑄟 hmā = 𑄦 hā + 𑄳 VIRAMA + 𑄟 hmā

Letter, punctuation and digit names

Chakma letters have a descriptive name followed by a traditional Brahmic consonant. These are given in annotations to the character names. Alongside a single and double danda punctuation, Chakma has a unique question mark, and a section sign, Phulacihna. There is some variation in the glyphs for the Phulacihna,some looking like flowers or leaves. A set of digits exists although Bengali digits are also used.

Keyboard layout

Unicode

Chakma script was added to the Unicode Standard in January, 2012 with the release of version 6.1.

The Unicode block for Chakma script is U+11100–U+1114F. Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points:

Chakma[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1110x
U+1111x
U+1112x
U+1113x
U+1114x
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 7.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

References

  1. ^ RibengUni="http://uni.hilledu.com "

External links

  • RibengUni (First & Only Chakma Unicode Font)
  • Chakma Script
  • Chakma Bangla Blog
  • Chakma Open Dictionary
  • "Chakma alphabet, pronunciation and language". Omniglot. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  • "About UNICODE Chakma Font (Script) supported in your any OS". Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  • "Tribal Languages - Bangladesh Wiki (বাংলাদেশ)". Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  • "Honour for writers". The Telegraph - Calcutta (Kolkata). 2009-01-07. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 

Bibliography

  • Cāṅmā, Cirajyoti and Maṅgal Cāṅgmā. 1982. Cāṅmār āg pudhi (Chakma primer). Rāṅamāṭi:Cāṅmābhāṣā Prakāśanā Pariṣad.
  • Khisa, Bhagadatta. 2001. Cāṅmā pattham pāt (Chakma primer.) Rāṅamāṭi: Tribal Cultural Institute(TCI).
  • Singā. 2004. Phagadāṅ
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.