Chicano Movement

Chicano movement
Part of Chicanismo
Cesar Chavez with demonstrators
Date 1940s to today
Location Mainly the USA
Causes Racism in the United States
Goals Chicanismo
Methods Occupations, Protest, Boycotts, School walkouts
Parties to the civil conflict
Lead figures

The Chicano Movement of the 1960s, also called the Chicano Civil Rights Movement, also known as El Movimiento, is an extension of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement which began in the 1940s with the stated goal of achieving Mexican American empowerment. The civil rights movement time was in the 1960s.

Contents

  • Origins 1
  • Major cities 2
  • Political activism 3
  • Student walkouts 4
  • Student and youth organizations 5
  • Anti-war activism 6
  • Chicano art 7
  • Aztlán 8
  • See also 9
  • Notes 10
  • Further reading 11
  • External links 12

Origins

It encompassed a broad cross section of issues—from restoration of land grants, to farm workers' rights, to enhanced education, to voting and political rights, as well as emerging awareness of collective history. Socially, the Chicano Movement addressed negative ethnic stereotypes of Mexicans in mass media and the American consciousness. Edward J. Escobar sleeder [3] from The Journal of American History describes some of the negativity of the time in stating, "The conflict between Chicanos and the LAPD thus helped Mexican Americans develop a new political consciousness that included a greater sense of ethnic solidarity, an acknowledgment of their subordinated status in American society, and a greater determination to act politically, and perhaps even violently, to end that subordination. While most people of Mexican descent still refused to call themselves Chicanos, many had come to adopt many of the principles intrinsic in the concept of chicanismo." Chicanos did this through the creation of works of literary and visual art that validated the Mexican American ethnicity and culture practices.

The term Chicano was originally used as a derogatory label for the sons and daughters of Mexican migrants. Some prefer to spell the word "Chicano" as "Xicano". This new generation of Mexican Americans were singled out by people on both sides of the border in whose view these Mexican Americans were not "American", yet they were not "Mexican", either. In the 1960s "Chicano" was accepted as a symbol of self-determination and ethnic pride.

The Chicano Movement also addressed discrimination in public and private institutions. Early in the twentieth century, Mexican Americans formed organizations to protect themselves from discrimination. One of those organizations, the League of United Latin American Citizens, was formed in 1929 and remains active today.[1]

The Chicano Movement had been fermenting since the end of the U.S.–Mexican War in 1848, when the current U.S–Mexican border took form. Since that time, many Chicanos and Chicanas have campaigned against discrimination, racism and exploitation. The Chicano Movement that culminated in the early 1970s took inspiration from heroes and heroines from their indigenous, Mexican and American past.

The movement gained momentum after

  • "La Batalla Está Aquí": The Chicana/o Movement in Los Angeles, interview series, Center for Oral History Research, UCLA Library Special Collections, University of California, Los Angeles.
  • Mexican-American.org – Network of the Mexican American Community
  • NetworkAztlan.com - Network Aztlan
  • Chicana community search page

External links

  • Gómez-Quiñones, Juan, and Irene Vásquez. Making Aztlán: Ideology and Culture of the Chicana and Chicano Movement, 1966-1977 (2014)

Further reading

  1. ^ "LULAC: LULAC History - All for One and One for All". Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  2. ^ "毎月の返済が遅れるなどを - お金を借りる即日cash|ブラックでもお金借りたい方必見". Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  3. ^ Williams, Rudi. "Congress Lauds American G.I. Forum Founder Garcia". U.S. Department of Defense. 
  4. ^ "LatinoLA - Hollywood :: Mendez v. Westminster". LatinoLA. Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  5. ^ HERNANDEZ v. TEXAS. The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law. http://www.oyez.org/cases/1950-1959/1953/1953_406/
  6. ^ MALDEF - About Us
  7. ^ "STERILIZED in the Name of Public Health". PubMed Central (PMC). Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  8. ^ "Untitled Document". Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  9. ^ http://www.svrep.org/about_svrep.html
  10. ^ "Chicano Power in the U.S.A." - Xcano Media, Los Angeles
  11. ^ Our First Poll Tax Drive": The American G.I. Forum Fights Disenfranchisement of Mexican Americans in Texas""". Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  12. ^ "Election of Roybal, democracy at work : extension of remarks of Hon. Chet Holifield of California in the House of Representatives". Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  13. ^ "Untitled Document". Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  14. ^ http://denver.rockymountainnews.com/millennium/0921mile.shtml
  15. ^ Our PLACE Called Home - The Chicano Student Walkout
  16. ^ http://www.tamuk.edu/southtexan/PDF_Archives/032310.pdf
  17. ^ a b Moore, J. W., & Cuéllar, A. B. (1970). Mexican Americans. Ethnic groups in American life series. Englewood, Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. p. 150. ISBN 0-13-579490-0
  18. ^ Moore, J. W., & Cuéllar, A. B. (1970). Mexican Americans. Ethnic groups in American life series. Englewood, Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. p. 151. ISBN 0-13-579490-0
  19. ^ "30 Years After the Chicano Moratorium". Frontlines of Revolutionary Struggle. Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  20. ^ http://chicanomoratorium.org/html/history_timeline.html
  21. ^ Goldman, Shifra M. "Latin American artists of the USA". Oxford Art Online. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  22. ^ "Tujunga Wash mural". Los Angeles Times: Local. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  23. ^ "Alurista Essay - Critical Essays". eNotes. Retrieved 23 September 2015. 

Notes

See also

Many in the Chicano Movement attribute poet Alurista for popularizing the term Aztlán in a poem presented during the Chicano Youth Liberation Conference in Denver, Colorado, March 1969.[23]

The name Aztlán was first taken up by a group of Chicano independence activists led by Oscar Zeta Acosta during the Chicano movement of the 1960s and 1970s. They used the name "Aztlán" to refer to the lands of Northern Mexico that were annexed by the United States as a result of the Mexican-American War. Combined with the claim of some historical linguists and anthropologists that the original homeland of the Aztecan peoples was located in the southwestern United States even though these lands were historically the homeland of many American Indian tribes (eg. Navajo, Hopi, Apache, Comanche, Shoshone, Mojave, Zuni and many others). Aztlán in this sense became a "symbol" for mestizo activists who believed they have a legal and primordial right to the land, although this is disputed by many of the American Indian tribes currently living on the lands they claim as their historical homeland. Some scholars argue that Aztlan was located within Mexico proper. Groups who have used the name "Aztlán" in this manner include Plan Espiritual de Aztlán, MEChA (Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlán, "Chicano Student Movement of Aztlán").

The concept of Aztlán as the place of origin of the pre-Columbian Mexican civilization has become a symbol for various Mexican nationalist and indigenous movements.

(Taken from the Chicano Activism section of the main article Aztlán)

Aztlán

About 20 years later, Chicano artists were affected by political priorities and societal values. They were also becoming more accepted by society. They were becoming more interested making pieces for the museums and such, which brought about new forms of artwork, like easel paintings. By the late 1970s, women became very prominent in the artistic world. An increase in individualism was more apparent as Chicano artists entered the art business market.

Chicanos and Latinos/Hispanics throughout the United States still have much progress to be made, and such progress will only be accomplished through the constant beckoning of the limits of societal values. Art is, and always will be, the avenue by which our people and the people of the world break their shackles. So, Vatos and Vatettes, art your heart away.

Chicano Art developed around the 1960s.[21] In its beginning stages, Chicano art was distinguished by the expression through public art forms. Chicano artists created a bi-cultural style that included US and Mexican influences. The Mexican style can be found by their use of bright colors and expressionism. The art has a very powerful regionalist factor that influences its work. An example of a Chicano mural can be found in California, called The Great Wall of LA or Tujunga Wash Mural by Judy Baca.[22] Another example is La Marcha Por La Humanidad, which is housed at the University of Houston.

A major element of the Movement was the burgeoning of Chicano art fueled by heightened political activism and energized cultural pride. Chicano visual art, music, literature, dance, theater and other forms of expression have flourished. During the 20th century, an emergence of Chicano expression developed into a full-scale Chicano Art Movement. Chicanos developed a wealth of cultural expression through such media as painting, drawing, sculpture and printmaking. Similarly, novels, poetry, short stories, essays and plays have flowed from the pens of contemporary Chicano writers. Chicano, Mexican-American, and Hispanic cultural centers, theaters, film festivals, museums, galleries and numerous other arts and cultural organizations have also grown in number and impact since this time.

Chicano art

The anti-Vietnam War demonstrations and activities throughout the Southwest and other Mexican American communities from November 1969 through August 1971. The movement focused on the disproportionately high death rate of Mexican American soldiers in Vietnam as well as discrimination faced at home.[19] After months of demonstrations and conferences, it was decided to hold a National Chicano Moratorium against the war on August 29, 1970. The Committee only lasted one more year but the political momentum generated by the Moratorium led many of its activists to continue their activism in other groups.[20]

Anti-war activism

Chicano student groups such as United Mexican American Students (UMAS), Mexican American Youth Association (MAYA) in California, and the Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlán (MECHA). Student groups such as these were initially concerned with education issues, but their activities evolved to participation in political campaigns and to various forms of protest against broader issues such as police brutality and the U.S. war in Southeast Asia.[17] The Brown Berets, a youth group which began in California, took on a more militant and nationalistic ideology.[18]

Student and youth organizations

The blowouts of the 1960s can be compared to the 2006 walkouts, which were done as opposition to the Illegal Immigration Control bill.

In the late 1960s, when the student movement was active around the globe, the Chicano Movement inspired its own organized protests like the mass walkouts of high school students and the Chicano Moratorium in Los Angeles in 1970.[15] The student walkouts occurred in Denver and East LA of 1968. There were also many incidents of walkouts outside of the city of Los Angeles. In the LA County high schools of El Monte, Alhambra, and Covina (particularly Northview) the students marched to fight for their rights. Similar walkouts took place in 1978 of Houston high schools to protest the discrepant academic quality for Latino students. There were also several student sit-ins as objection to the decreasing funding of Chicano courses.

After World War II, Chicanos began to assert their own views of their own history and status as Mexican Americans in the US and they began to critically analyze what they were being taught in public schools.[14]

Student walkouts

The Mexican American Political Association (MAPA), founded in Fresno, California came into being in 1959 and drew up a plan for direct electoral politics. MAPA soon became the primary political voice for the Mexican-American community of California.[13]

In California, a similar phenomenon took place. When World War II veteran Los Angeles City Council.[12]

In 1949 and 1950, the American G.I. Forum initiated local "pay your poll tax" drives to register Mexican American voters. Although they were unable to repeal the poll tax, their efforts did bring in new Hispanic voters who would begin to elect Latino representatives to the Texas House of Representatives and to Congress during the late 1950s and early 1960s.[11]

Casa Aztlán. A mural in Pilsen, Chicago for the Chicano Movement

Political activism

This is a list of the major epicenters of the Chicano Movement.

Major cities

With the widespread immigration marches which flourished throughout the U.S. in the Spring of 2006, the Chicano Movement has continued to expand in its focus and the number of people who are actively involved within the Mexican American community. As of the 21st Century, a major focus of the Chicano Movement has been to increase the (intelligent) representation of Chicanos in mainstream American media and entertainment.There are also many community education projects to educate Latinos about their voice and power like South Texas Voter Registration Project. SVREP's mission is to empower Latinos and other minorities by increasing their participation in the American democratic process. Members of the beginning of the Chicano movement like Faustino Erebia Jr., still speak about their trials and the changes they have seen over the years.[9][10]

Some women who worked for the Chicano movement felt that members were being too concerned with social issues that affected the Chicano community, instead of addressing problems that affected Chicana women specifically. This led Chicana women to form the Comisión Femenil Mexicana Nacional. In 1975, it became involved in the case Madrigal v. Quilligan, obtaining a moratorium on the compulsory sterilization of women and adoption of bilingual consent forms. These steps were necessary because many Hispanic women who did not understand English well were being sterilized in the United States at the time, without proper consent.[7][8]

The most prominent civil rights organization in the Mexican-American community is the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund (MALDEF), founded in 1968.[6] Although modeled after the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, MALDEF has also taken on many of the functions of other organizations, including political advocacy and training of local leaders.

There were several leaders throughout the Chicano Movement. In New Mexico there was Reies López Tijerina who worked on the land grant movement. He fought to regain control of what he considered ancestral lands. He became involved in civil rights causes within six years and also became a cosponsor of the Poor People's March on Washington in 1967. In Texas, war veteran Dr. Hector P. Garcia founded the American GI Forum and was later appointed to the United States Commission on Civil Rights. In Denver, Rodolfo "Corky" Gonzáles helped define the meaning of being a Chicano through his poem Yo Soy Joaquin (I am Joaquin)[4]. In California, César Chávez and the farm workers turned to the struggle of urban youth, and created political awareness and participated in La Raza Unida Party.

Mexican American civil rights activists also achieved several major legal victories including the 1947 Mendez v. Westminster Supreme Court ruling which declared that segregating children of "Mexican and Latin descent" was unconstitutional and the 1954 Hernandez v. Texas ruling which declared that Mexican Americans and other historically-subordinated groups in the United States were entitled to equal protection under the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.[4][5]

[3] after being killed during WWII.Three Rivers, Texas, a Mexican American serviceman who was denied a funeral service in his hometown of Felix Longoria The AGIF first received national exposure when it took on the cause of [2]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.