World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Chives

{| class="infobox biota" style="text-align: left; width: 200px; font-size: 100%"

|- ! colspan=2 style="text-align: center" | Chives
Allium schoenoprasum |- | colspan=2 style="text-align: center" | |- | colspan=2 style="text-align: center" | |- | colspan=2 style="text-align: center; font-size: 88%" | Allium schoenoprasum (left)
and Allium cepa (right)[1] |- |- colspan=2 style="text-align: center"

|- |- ! colspan=2 style="text-align: center" | Scientific classification |-













































| Species: | A. schoenoprasum |-


|-


|- ! colspan=2 style="text-align: center" | Binomial name |- | colspan=2 style="text-align: center" | Allium schoenoprasum
L. |- style="text-align: center"

|-

|-

|-

|-

|-

|-

|-

|-

|-

|-






|- ! colspan=2 style="text-align: center" | Synonyms |- | colspan=2 style="text-align: left" |

|-

|}
Chives, raw
A clump of flowering chives
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 126 kJ (30 kcal)
4.35 g
Sugars 1.85 g
Dietary fiber 2.5 g
Fat
0.73 g
3.27 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(27%)
218 μg
(24%)
2612 μg
323 μg
Thiamine (B1)
(7%)
0.078 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(10%)
0.115 mg
Niacin (B3)
(4%)
0.647 mg
(6%)
0.324 mg
Vitamin B6
(11%)
0.138 mg
Folate (B9)
(26%)
105 μg
Vitamin C
(70%)
58.1 mg
Vitamin E
(1%)
0.21 mg
Vitamin K
(203%)
212.7 μg
Minerals
Calcium
(9%)
92 mg
Iron
(12%)
1.6 mg
Magnesium
(12%)
42 mg
Manganese
(18%)
0.373 mg
Phosphorus
(8%)
58 mg
Potassium
(6%)
296 mg
Zinc
(6%)
0.56 mg

Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Chive flower
Chive flower
Chive seeds
Chive seedlings sprouting

Chives is the common name of Allium schoenoprasum. It, like most of the other species of the Allium genus, is a choice edible.[2]

A perennial plant, it is widespread in nature across much of Europe, Asia and North America.[3][4][5][6][7][8]

A. schoenoprasum is the only species of Allium native to both the New and the Old Worlds.

The name of the species derives from the Greek σχοίνος, skhoínos (sedge) and πράσον, práson (leek).[9] Its English name, chives, derives from the French word cive, from cepa, the Latin word for onion.[10]

Chives are a commonly used herb and can be found in grocery stores or grown in home gardens. In culinary use, the scapes and the unopened, immature flower buds are diced and used as an ingredient for fish, potatoes, soups, and other dishes. Chives have insect-repelling properties that can be used in gardens to control pests.[11]

Contents

  • Biology 1
  • Uses 2
    • Culinary arts 2.1
    • Uses in plant cultivation 2.2
    • Medicine 2.3
  • Cultivation 3
  • History and cultural importance 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Biology

Chives are a bulb-forming herbaceous perennial plant, growing to 30–50 cm (12–20 in) tall. The bulbs are slender, conical, 2–3 cm (341 14 in) long and 1 cm (12 in) broad, and grow in dense clusters from the roots. The scapes (or stems) are hollow and tubular, up to 50 cm (20 in) long and 2–3 mm (11618 in) across, with a soft texture, although, prior to the emergence of a flower, they may appear stiffer than usual. The leaves, which are shorter than the scapes, are also hollow and tubular, or terete, (round in cross-section) which distinguishes it at a glance from Garlic Chives. The flowers are pale purple, and star-shaped with six petals, 1–2 cm (1234 in) wide, and produced in a dense inflorescence of 10-30 together; before opening, the inflorescence is surrounded by a papery bract. The seeds are produced in a small three-valved capsule, maturing in summer. The herb flowers from April to May in the southern parts of its habitat zones and in June in the northern parts.[12][13]

Chives are the only species of Allium native to both the Old World and the New World. Sometimes, the plants found in North America are classified as A. schoenoprasum var. sibiricum, although this is disputed. Differences among specimens are significant. One example was found in northern Maine growing solitary, instead of in clumps, also exhibiting dingy grey flowers.[14]

Although chives are repulsive to insects in general, due to their sulfur compounds, their flowers attract bees, and they are at times kept to increase desired insect life.[15]

Uses

Culinary arts

Chives are grown for their scapes, which are used for culinary purposes as a flavoring herb, and provide a somewhat milder flavor than those of other Allium species.

Chives have a wide variety of culinary uses, such as in traditional dishes in France, Sweden and elsewhere.[16] In his 1806 book Attempt at a Flora (Försök til en flora), Retzius describes how chives are used with pancakes, soups, fish and sandwiches.[16] They are also an ingredient of the gräddfil sauce with the traditional herring dish served at Swedish midsummer celebrations. The flowers may also be used to garnish dishes.[17] In Poland and Germany, chives are served with quark cheese. Chives are one of the "fines herbes" of French cuisine, which also include tarragon, chervil and/or parsley. Chives can be found fresh at most markets year-round, making them readily available; they can also be dry-frozen without much impairment to the taste, giving home growers the opportunity to store large quantities harvested from their own gardens.[10]

Uses in plant cultivation

Retzius also describes how farmers would plant chives between the rocks making up the borders of their flowerbeds, to keep the plants free from pests (such as Japanese beetles).[16][18] The growing plant repels unwanted insect life, and the juice of the leaves can be used for the same purpose, as well as fighting fungal infections, mildew and scab.[19][20][21]

Its flowers are attractive to bees, which are important for gardens with an abundance of plants in need of pollination.

Medicine

The medicinal properties of chives are similar to those of allyl sulfides[22] and alkyl sulfoxides, chives are reported to have a beneficial effect on the circulatory system. They also have mild stimulant, diuretic, and antiseptic properties.[23] As chives are usually served in small amounts and never as the main dish, negative effects are rarely encountered, although digestive problems may occur following overconsumption.[24]

Chives are also rich in vitamins A and C,[25] contain trace amounts of sulfur, and are rich in calcium and iron.[26]

Cultivation

Chives are cultivated both for their culinary uses and their ornamental value; the violet flowers are often used in ornamental dry bouquets.[27]

Chives thrive in well-drained soil, rich in organic matter, with a pH of 6-7 and full sun.[8] They can be grown from seed and mature in summer, or early the following spring. Typically, chives need to be germinated at a temperature of 15 to 20 °C (60-70 °F) and kept moist. They can also be planted under a cloche or germinated indoors in cooler climates, then planted out later. After at least four weeks, the young shoots should be ready to be planted out. They are also easily propagated by division.[28]

In cold regions, chives die back to the underground bulbs in winter, with the new leaves appearing in early spring. Chives starting to look old can be cut back to about 2–5 cm. When harvesting, the needed number of stalks should be cut to the base.[28] During the growing season, the plant will continually regrow leaves, allowing for a continuous harvest.[28]

History and cultural importance

Chives have been cultivated in Europe since the Middle Ages (5th until the 15th centuries), although their usage dates back 5000 years.[10] They were sometimes referred to as "rush leeks" (from the Greek schoinos meaning rush and prason meaning leek).

The Romans believed chives could relieve the pain from sunburn or a sore throat. They believed eating chives could increase blood pressure and act as a diuretic.[29]

Romanian Gypsies have used chives in fortune telling.[25] It was believed that bunches of dried chives hung around a house would ward off disease and evil.[25]

References

  1. ^ 1885 illustration. Original book source: Prof. Otto Wilhelm Thomé; Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. 1885, Gera, Germany
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ Allium schoenoprasum bei cong 北葱Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 195
  5. ^
  6. ^ Allium schoenoprasumFlora of North America Vol. 26 Page 240 Chive
  7. ^ L.Allium schoenoprasumAltervista Flora Italiana, Erba cipollina, wild chives, Civette, Schnittlauch, inicludes photos, drawings, European distribution map, etc.
  8. ^ a b Allium schoenoprasum factsheet from Kemper center for home gardening
  9. ^
  10. ^ a b c
  11. ^
  12. ^ Allium schoenoprasum factsheet, from Kemper center for home gardening, retrieved on June 13, 2006, based on the position of the botanical Garden (Missouri)
  13. ^ Gräslök, from Den virtuella floran, retrieved on June 13, 2006, The facts mentioned on the site apply to Sweden, which is in the northern part of the habitat zone.
  14. ^
  15. ^ Baines. C. Making a Wildlife Garden. 0
  16. ^ a b c Försök til en Flora Oeconomica Sveciæ by A. J. Retzius (1806)
  17. ^ Allium schoenoprasum, from Mountain valley growers, accessed on June 13, 2006
  18. ^
  19. ^ Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press 1979 ISBN 0-87857-262-7
  20. ^ Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. 1978 ISBN 0-88266-064-0
  21. ^ Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^ Chive Talkin', by Winston J. Craig, Ph. D
  25. ^ a b c Chives, from "Sally's place", accessed on May 31, 2009
  26. ^ Organic Gardening Practices. Archived December 7, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^
  28. ^ a b c
  29. ^

External links

  • Media related to at Wikimedia Commons
  • Nutritional Information
  • Mrs. Grieve's "A Modern Herbal" @ Botanical.com
  • Chives, history, cultivation, container growing and a recipe
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.