World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Commonwealth (United States)

 

Commonwealth (United States)

Commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good. Historically it has sometimes been synonymous with "republicanism".

More recently it has been used for fraternal associations of some sovereign nations. Most notably the Commonwealth of Nations, an association primarily of former members of the British Empire, is often referred to as simply "the Commonwealth".

The English noun "commonwealth" in the sense meaning "public welfare; general good or advantage" dates from the 15th century.[1] The original phrase "the common-wealth" or "the common weal" (echoed in the modern synonym "public weal") comes from the old meaning of "wealth", which is "well-being", and is itself a loose translation of the Latin res publica (republic). The term literally meant "common well-being". In the 17th century the definition of "commonwealth" expanded from its original sense of "public welfare" or "commonweal" to mean "a state in which the supreme power is vested in the people; a republic or democratic state".[2]

Iceland

The Icelandic Commonwealth or the Icelandic Free State (Icelandic: Þjóðveldið) was the state existing in Iceland between the establishment of the Althing in 930 and the pledge of fealty to the Norwegian king in 1262. It was initially established by a public consisting largely of recent immigrants from Norway who had fled the unification of that country under King Harald Fairhair.

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Republic is still an alternative translation of the traditional name of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Wincenty Kadłubek (Vincent Kadlubo, 1160–1223) used for the first time the original Latin term res publica in the context of Poland in his "Chronicles of the Kings and Princes of Poland". The name was used officially for the confederal country formed by Poland and Lithuania 1569–1795.

It is also often referred as "Nobles' Commonwealth" (1505–1795, i.e., before the union). In contemporary political doctrine of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, "our state is a Republic (Commonwealth) under presidency of the King". The commonwealth introduced a doctrine of religious tolerance called Warsaw Confederation, had its own parliament Sejm (although elections were restricted to the nobility and elected kings, who were bound to certain contracts Pacta conventa from the beginning of the reign).

"A commonwealth of good counsaile" was the title of the 1607 English translation of the work of Wawrzyniec Grzymała Goślicki "De optimo senatore" that presented to English readers many of the ideas present in the political system of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

England

The Commonwealth of England was the official name of the political unit (de facto military rule in the name of parliamentary supremacy) that replaced the Kingdom of England (after the English Civil War) from 1649–53 and 1659–60, under the rule of Oliver Cromwell and his son and successor Richard. From 1653 to 1659, although still legally known as a Commonwealth, the republic, united with the former Kingdom of Scotland, operated under different institutions (at times as a de facto monarchy) and is known by historians as the Protectorate. The Commonwealth of England formed the first republic in the English-speaking world. In an English context, it is sometimes referred to as the "Old Commonwealth".

National

Australia

The term also served when six Australian colonies federated to form the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. The Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act created a federal system, in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the States—the evolved status of the colonies. The Constitution stipulated that Australia was a constitutional monarchy, where the Head of State is the British (or, since 1942, Australian) monarch, who is represented at the federal level by a Governor-General, and at the state level by six Governors, one for each state. The Parliament of Australia was derived from the British and American systems to form a uniquely Australian system. It is largely based on the British Westminster System, adopting many of its practices and precedents, but with a similar structure—House of Representatives, and Senate—to the U.S. Congress. In an Australian context, the term "Commonwealth" (capitalised) thus refers to the federal government and "Commonwealth of Australia" is the official name of the country.

Dominica

The small Caribbean republic of Dominica has used the official style Commonwealth of Dominica since 1970.

The Bahamas

The Bahamas uses the official style Commonwealth of The Bahamas.

United States

The term "commonwealth" has one of two political meanings within the United States:

U.S. states

Four states in the United States officially designate themselves as "commonwealths". All four were original colonies (Kentucky was originally a part of the land grant of the Colony of Virginia) and share a strong influence of colonial common law in some of their laws and institutions. The four are:

  • Kentucky is designated a Commonwealth by the Kentucky Constitution and is known constitutionally as the "Commonwealth of Kentucky".[3]
  • Massachusetts is a Commonwealth,[4] declaring itself as such in its constitution, which states: "[T]he body politic is formed by a voluntary association of individuals: it is a social compact, by which the whole people covenants with each citizen, and each citizen with the whole people, that all shall be governed by certain laws for the common good."[5]
  • Pennsylvania uses the "Commonwealth of Pennsylvania" constitutionally and in its official title.[6]
  • Virginia has been known as the "Commonwealth of Virginia" since before joining the United States, and is referred to as a Commonwealth in its constitution.[7]

U.S. insular areas

"Commonwealth" is also used in the United States to describe the political relationship between the United States and the overseas unincorporated territories:

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Commonwealth of Britain Bill

Labour MP Tony Benn sponsored a Commonwealth of Britain Bill several times between 1991 and 2001, intended to abolish the monarchy and establish a British republic. It never reached second reading.

International

Commonwealth of Nations

The Commonwealth of Nations—formerly the British Commonwealth—is a voluntary association of 53 independent sovereign states, most of which were once part of the British Empire. The Commonwealth's membership includes both republics and monarchies. The head of the Commonwealth of Nations is Queen Elizabeth II, who reigns as monarch directly in 16 member states known as Commonwealth realms.

Commonwealth of Independent States

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is a loose alliance or confederation consisting of 10 of the 15 former Soviet Republics, the exceptions being Turkmenistan (a CIS associate member), Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Georgia. Georgia left the CIS in August 2008 after a clash with Russia over South Ossetia. Its creation signaled the dissolution of the Soviet Union, its purpose being to "allow a civilized divorce" between the Soviet Republics. The CIS has developed as a forum by which the member-states can co-operate in economics, defense, and foreign policy.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Commonwealth", Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.) (dictionary.oed.com), 1989, retrieved 13 March 2010 
  2. ^ "Better things were done, and better managed ... under a Commonwealth than under a King." Pepys, Diary" (1667) "Commonwealth", Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.) (dictionary.oed.com), 1989, retrieved 13 March 2010 
  3. ^ "Kentucky.gov". Kentucky.gov. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  4. ^ "Mass.Gov". Mass.Gov. 2013-09-26. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  5. ^ "Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts". Malegislature.gov. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  6. ^ "Commonwealth of Pennsylvania | The Keystone State". Pa.gov. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  7. ^ "Home". Virginia.gov. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  8. ^ copyright 2009

External links

  • Commonwealth of Nations
    • The Commonwealth — UK government site
    • Commonwealth of Nations Secretariat*
    • Commonwealth Foundation
    • Royal Commonwealth Society
  • Commonwealth of Independent States
    • CIS Executive Committee
    • CIS Statistical Committee
  • Countries
    • Commonwealth of Australia
  • United States of America
    • Commonwealth of Kentucky
    • Commonwealth of Massachusetts
    • Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
    • Commonwealth of Virginia
    • Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
    • Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
  • Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
    • Commonwealth of Diverse Cultures: Poland's Heritage
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.