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Disulfur decafluoride

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Disulfur decafluoride

Disulfur decafluoride
Wireframe model of disulfur decafluoride
Ball-and-stick model of disulfur decafluoride Space-filling model of disulfur decafluoride
Identifiers
CAS number
PubChem  YesY
ChemSpider  YesY
EC number
MeSH
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula S2F10
Molar mass 254.1 g/mol
Appearance colorless liquid
Odor like sulfur dioxide[1]
Density 2.08 g/cm3
Melting point −53 °C (−63 °F; 220 K)
Boiling point 30.1 °C (86.2 °F; 303.3 K)
Solubility in water insoluble[2]
Hazards
Main hazards Poisonous
NFPA 704
0
2
0
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)

Disulfur decafluoride (S2F10) is a gas discovered in 1934 by Denbigh and Whytlaw-Gray.[3] Each S of the S2F10 molecule is octahedral, and surrounded by 5 fluorines.[4] S2F10 is highly toxic, with toxicity 4 times that of phosgene. It was considered a potential chemical warfare pulmonary agent in World War II because it does not produce lacrimation or skin irritation, thus providing little warning of exposure. It is produced by the electrical decomposition of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)—an essentially inert insulator used in high voltage systems such as transmission lines, substations and switchgear. S2F10 is also made during the production of SF6, but is distilled out.

Production

Disulfur decafluoride is produced primarily by the decomposition of sulfur hexafluoride:

2 SF6 → S2F10 + F2

Properties

This compound contains sulfur in the +5 oxidation state.

At temperatures above 150°C, S
2
F
10
decomposes slowly to SF
6
and SF
4
:

S2F10SF6 + SF4

S
2
F
10
reacts with N
2
F
4
to give SF
5
NF
2
. It reacts with SO
2
to form SF
5
OSO
2
F
in the presence of ultraviolet radiation.

In the presence of excess chlorine gas, S
2
F
10
reacts to form sulfur chloride pentafluoride (SF
5
Cl
):

S
2
F
10
+ Cl
2
→ 2 SF
5
Cl

The analogous reaction with bromine is reversible and yields SF
5
Br
.[5] The reversibility of this reaction can be used to synthesize S
2
F
10
from SF
5
Br
.[6]

Ammonia is oxidised by S
2
F
10
into NSF
3
.[7]

Toxicity

Disulfur decafluoride is a colorless gas or liquid with a sulfur-dioxide-like odor.[8] It is about 4 times as poisonous as phosgene. Its toxicity is thought to be caused by its disproportionation in the lungs into SF
6
, which is inert, and SF
4
, which reacts with moisture to form sulfurous acid and hydrofluoric acid.[9] Disulfur decafluoride itself is not toxic due to hydrolysis products, since it is hardly hydrolysed by water and most aqueous solutions.

External links

  • "Sulfur Pentaflu". 1988 OSHA PEL Project. CDC NIOSH. 

References

  1. ^ CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
  2. ^ http://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB0751782.htm
  3. ^ Denbigh, K. G.; Whytlaw-Gray, R. (1934). "The Preparation and Properties of Disulphur Decafluoride". Journal of the Chemical Society 1934: 1346–1352.  
  4. ^ Harvey, R. B.; Bauer, S. H. (June 1953). "An Electron Diffraction Study of Disulfur Decafluoride". Journal of the American Chemical Society 75 (12): 2840–2846.  
  5. ^ Cohen, B.; MacDiarmid, A. G. (December 1965). "Chemical Properties of Disulfur Decafluoride". Inorganic Chemistry 4 (12): 1782–1785.  
  6. ^ Winter, R.; Nixon, P.; Gard, G. (January 1998). "A new preparation of disulfur decafluoride". Journal of Fluorine Chemistry 87 (1): 85–86.  
  7. ^ Mitchell, S. (1996). Biological Interactions of Sulfur Compounds. CRC Press. p. 14.  
  8. ^ "Sulfur Pentaflu". 1988 OSHA PEL Project. CDC NIOSH. 
  9. ^ Johnston, H. (2003). A Bridge not Attacked: Chemical Warfare Civilian Research During World War II. World Scientific. pp. 33–36.  
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