Dynamics is a branch of applied mathematics (specifically classical mechanics) concerned with the study of forces and torques and their effect on motion, as opposed to kinematics, which studies the motion of objects without reference to its causes. Isaac Newton defined the fundamental physical laws which govern dynamics in physics, especially his second law of motion.
Contents

Principles 1

Linear and rotational dynamics 2

Force 3

Newton's laws 4

See also 5

References 6

Further reading 7
Principles
Generally speaking, researchers involved in dynamics study how a physical system might develop or alter over time and study the causes of those changes. In addition, Newton established the fundamental physical laws which govern dynamics in physics. By studying his system of mechanics, dynamics can be understood. In particular, dynamics is mostly related to Newton's second law of motion. However, all three laws of motion are taken into account because these are interrelated in any given observation or experiment.[
]
Linear and rotational dynamics
The study of dynamics falls under two categories: linear and rotational. Linear dynamics pertains to objects moving in a line and involves such quantities as force, mass/inertia, displacement (in units of distance), velocity (distance per unit time), acceleration (distance per unit of time squared) and momentum (mass times unit of velocity). Rotational dynamics pertains to objects that are rotating or moving in a curved path and involves such quantities as torque, moment of inertia/rotational inertia, angular displacement (in radians or less often, degrees), angular velocity (radians per unit time), angular acceleration (radians per unit of time squared) and angular momentum (moment of inertia times unit of angular velocity). Very often, objects exhibit linear and rotational motion.
For classical electromagnetism, it is Maxwell's equations that describe the dynamics. And the dynamics of classical systems involving both mechanics and electromagnetism are described by the combination of Newton's laws, Maxwell's equations, and the Lorentz force.
Force
From Newton, force can be defined as an exertion or pressure which can cause an object to accelerate. The concept of force is used to describe an influence which causes a free body (object) to accelerate. It can be a push or a pull, which causes an object to change direction, have new velocity, or to deform temporarily or permanently. Generally speaking, force causes an object's state of motion to change.^{[1]}
Newton's laws
Newton described force as the ability to cause a mass to accelerate. His three laws can be summarized as follows:

First law: If there is no net force on an object, then its velocity is constant. The object is either at rest (if its velocity is equal to zero), or it moves with constant speed in a single direction.^{[2]}^{[3]}

Second law: The rate of change of linear momentum P of an object is equal to the net force F_{net}, i.e., dP/dt = F_{net}.

Third law: When a first body exerts a force F_{1} on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force F_{2} = −F_{1} on the first body. This means that F_{1} and F_{2} are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.
Newton's Laws of Motion are valid only in an inertial frame of reference
See also
References

^ Goc, Roman (20042005 copyright date). "Force in Physics" (Physics tutorial). Retrieved 20100218.

^ Browne, Michael E. (July 1999). Schaum's outline of theory and problems of physics for engineering and science (Series: Schaum's Outline Series). McGrawHill Companies. p. 58.

^ Holzner, Steven (December 2005). Physics for Dummies. Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated. p. 64.
Further reading

Swagatam (25 March 011). "Calculating Engineering Dynamics Using Newton's Laws".

Wilson, C. E. (2003). Kinematics and dynamics of machinery.



Publications



Other writings



Newtonianism



Life



Friends & Family



Discoveries and inventions



Phrases



Theory expansions



Related



This article was sourced from Creative Commons AttributionShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, EGovernment Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a nonprofit organization.