World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0002691403
Reproduction Date:

Title: East-southeast  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Niue, Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Brussels, ESE, Parama Island
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


"ENE" and "Compass point" redirect here. For the company with the former ticker symbol ENE, see Enron. For other uses, see Compass Point (disambiguation).

The points of the compass are points on a compass, specifically on the compass rose, marking divisions of the four cardinal directions: North, South, East, West. The number of points may be only the 4 cardinal points, or the 8 principal points adding the intercardinal (or ordinal) directions northeast (NE), southeast (SE), southwest (SW), and northwest (NW). In metereological usage further intermediate points are added to give the sixteen points of a wind compass.[1] Finally, at the most complete in European tradition, are found the full thirty-two points of the mariner's compass.[2] In ancient China 24 points of the compass were used.

The mariner's practice of boxing the compass is the action of naming all thirty-two points of the compass in order clockwise.[3] The names of intermediate points are formed by the initials of the cardinal directions and their intermediate ordinal directions, and are very handy to refer to a heading (or course or azimuth) in a general or colloquial fashion, without having to resort to computing or recalling degrees. For most applications, the minor points have been superseded by degrees measured clockwise from North.

Compass points

# Compass point Abbr. Traditional wind point Lowest Middle Highest
1 North N Tramontana 354.38° 0.00° 5.62°
2 North by east NbE Qto Tramontana verso Greco 5.63° 11.25° 16.87°
3 North-northeast NNE Greco-Tramontana 16.88° 22.50° 28.12°
4 Northeast by north NEbN Qto Greco verso Tramontana 28.13° 33.75° 39.37°
5 Northeast NE Greco 39.38° 45.00° 50.62°
6 Northeast by east NEbE Qto Greco verso Levante 50.63° 56.25° 61.87°
7 East-northeast ENE Greco-Levante 61.88° 67.50° 73.12°
8 East by north EbN Qto Levante verso Greco 73.13° 78.75° 84.37°
9 East E Levante 84.38° 90.00° 95.62°
10 East by south EbS Qto Levante verso Scirocco 95.63° 101.25° 106.87°
11 East-southeast ESE Levante-Scirocco 106.88° 112.50° 118.12°
12 Southeast by east SEbE Qto Scirocco verso Levante 118.13° 123.75° 129.37°
13 Southeast SE Scirocco 129.38° 135.00° 140.62°
14 Southeast by south SEbS Qto Scirocco verso Ostro 140.63° 146.25° 151.87°
15 South-southeast SSE Ostro-Scirocco 151.88° 157.50° 163.12°
16 South by east SbE Qto Ostro verso Scirocco 163.13° 168.75° 174.37°
17 South S Ostro 174.38° 180.00° 185.62°
18 South by west SbW Qto Ostro verso Libeccio 185.63° 191.25° 196.87°
19 South-southwest SSW Ostro-Libeccio 196.88° 202.50° 208.12°
20 Southwest by south SWbS Qto Libeccio verso Ostro 208.13° 213.75° 219.37°
21 Southwest SW Libeccio 219.38° 225.00° 230.62°
22 Southwest by west SWbW Qto Libeccio verso Ponente 230.63° 236.25° 241.87°
23 West-southwest WSW Ponente-Libeccio 241.88° 247.50° 253.12°
24 West by south WbS Qto Ponente verso Libeccio 253.13° 258.75° 264.37°
25 West W Ponente 264.38° 270.00° 275.62°
26 West by north WbN Qto Ponente verso Maestro 275.63° 281.25° 286.87°
27 West-northwest WNW Maestro-Ponente 286.88° 292.50° 298.12°
28 Northwest by west NWbW Qto Maestro verso Ponente 298.13° 303.75° 309.37°
29 Northwest NW Maestro 309.38° 315.00° 320.62°
30 Northwest by north NWbN Qto Maestro verso Tramontana 320.63° 326.25° 331.87°
31 North-northwest NNW Maestro-Tramontana 331.88° 337.50° 343.12°
32 North by west NbW Qto Tramontana verso Maestro 343.13° 348.75° 354.37°

Compass point names

"Southwest" redirects here. For the airline, see Southwest Airlines. For other uses, see Southwest (disambiguation).
"Northeast", "Northwest", and "Southeast" redirect here. For other uses, see Northeast (disambiguation), Northwest (disambiguation), and Southeast (disambiguation).

The names of the 32-wind compass rose follow these rules:

- The cardinal directions are North (N), East (E), South (S), West (W), at 90° angles on the compass rose.

- The ordinal (or intercardinal) directions are Northeast (NE), Southeast (SE), Southwest (SW) and Northwest (NW), formed by bisecting the angle of the cardinal winds. The name is merely a combination of the cardinals it bisects.

- The eight principal winds (or main winds) are the cardinals and ordinals considered together, that is N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, NW. Each principal wind is 45° from its neighbour. The principal winds form the basic eight-wind compass rose.

- The eight half-winds are the points obtained by bisecting the angles between the principal winds. The half-winds are North-northeast (NNE), East-northeast (ENE), East-southeast (ESE), South-southeast (SSE), South-southwest (SSW), West-southwest (WSW), West-northwest (WNW) and North-northwest (NNW). Notice that the name is constructed simply by combining the names of the principal winds to either side, with the cardinal wind coming first, the ordinal wind second. The eight principal winds and the eight half-winds together yield a 16-wind compass rose, with each compass point at a 2212° angle from the next.

- The sixteen quarter winds are the direction points obtained by bisecting the angles between the points on a 16-wind compass rose. The sixteen quarter-winds are North by east (NbE), Northeast by north (NEbN), Northeast by east (NEbE), East by north (EbN) in the first quadrant, East by south (EbS), Southeast by east (SEbE), Southeast by south (SEbS), South by east (SbE) in the second quadrant, South by west (SbW), Southwest by south (SWbS), Southwest by west (SWbW), West by south (WbS) in the third quadrant, and finally West by north (WbN), Northwest by west (NWbW), Northwest by north (NWbN) and North by west (NbW) in the fourth quadrant.

The eight principal winds, eight half-winds and sixteen quarter winds together yield a 32-wind compass rose, with each compass direction point at 1114° angle from the next.

The name of a quarter-wind is typically "X by Y", where X is a principal wind and Y is a cardinal wind. As a mnemonic device, it is useful to think of "X by Y" as a shortcut for the phrase "one quarter wind from X towards Y", where a "quarter" is 1114°, X is the nearest principal wind, and Y the next (more distant) cardinal wind. So "Northeast by east" means "one quarter from NE towards E", "Southwest by south" means "one quarter from SW towards S". The title of the famous Alfred Hitchcock 1959 movie, North by Northwest, is actually not a direction point on the 32-wind compass, as one quarter away from North towards the direction of Northwest is expressed as "North by west", and not "North by northwest". If the author of the film 'title' (suggested as the head of the story department at MGM), meant one point from Northwest towards North, the correct term would be "Northwest by North". (The title does make sense, however, if the word "Northwest" is taken to be the name of the airline on which the protagonists travel.)

Traditional names

The traditional compass rose of eight winds (and its 16-wind and 32-wind derivatives) was invented by seafarers in the Mediterranean Sea during the Middle Ages (the ancient Greco-Roman 12 classical compass winds have little to do with them). The traditional mariner's wind names were expressed in Italian - or, more precisely, the Italianate Mediterranean lingua franca common among sailors in the 13th and 14th centuries, that was principally composed of Genoese (Ligurian), mixed with Venetian, Sicilian, Provençal, Catalan, Greek and Arabic terms from around the Mediterranean basin.

This Italianate patois was used to designate the names of the principal winds on the compass rose found in mariner compasses and portolan charts of the 14th and 15th centuries. The "traditional" names of the eight principal winds are:

  • (N) - Tramontana
  • (NE) - Greco (or Bora in some Venetian sources)
  • (E) - Levante (sometimes Oriente)
  • (SE) - Scirocco (or Exaloc in Catalan)
  • (S) - Ostro (or Mezzogiorno in Venetian)
  • (SW) - Libeccio (or Garbino, Eissalot in Provençal)
  • (W) - Ponente (or Zephyrus in Greek)
  • (NW) - Maestro (or Mistral in Provençal)

Local spelling variations are far more numerous than listed, e.g. Tramutana, Gregale, Grecho, Sirocco, Xaloc, Lebeg, Libezo, Leveche, Mezzodi, Migjorn, Magistro, Mestre, etc. Traditional compass roses will typically have the initials T, G, L, S, O, L, P, and M on the main points. Portolan charts also colour-coded the compass winds: black for the eight principal winds, green for the eight half-winds and red for the sixteen quarter-winds.

In the English compass, all wind names are constructed on the basis of the cardinal four names (N, E, S, W). In the traditional compass, one needs to memorize eight basic names - one for each of the eight principal winds. While there are more names to memorize, the payoff is that the name construction rules for the 32-wind compass are more straightforward. The half-winds are just a combination of the two principal winds it bisects, with the shortest name usually coming first (e.g. NNE is "Greco-Tramontana", ENE is "Greco-Levante", SSE is "Ostro-Scirocco", etc.). The quarter winds are phrased "Quarto di X verso Y" (one quarter from X towards Y) or "X al Y" (X to Y) or "X per Y" (X by Y). There are no irregularities to trip over: the nearest principal wind always comes first, the more distant one second, e.g. North-by-east is "Quarto di Tramontana verso Greco", Northeast-by-north "Quarto di Greco verso Tramontana". The names are perfectly symmetric.

See also


External links

  • Wind Rose (Archived) – discusses the origins of the names for compass directions.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.