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Edward D. Thalmann

Edward Deforest Thalmann
Dr. Edward D. Thalmann, MD
Born (1945-04-03)April 3, 1945-July 24, 2004(2004-07-24) (aged 59)
Jersey City, New Jersey
Died Durham, North Carolina
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch  United States Navy
Years of service 1971 - 1993
Rank Captain
Awards Legion of Merit
Meritorious Service Medal
Navy Unit Commendation
Navy and Marine Corps Meritorious Unit Commendation with service star
National Defense Service Medal with service star
Navy and Marine Corps Overseas Service Ribbon with service star
Relations Alexander E. Thalmann (nephew)
Other work Naval Medical Research Institute
Duke University
Divers Alert Network

Capt. Edward Deforest Thalmann, USN (ret.) (b. April 3, 1945-d. July 24, 2004; age 59) was an American hyperbaric medicine specialist who was principally responsible for developing the current United States Navy dive tables for mixed-gas diving, which are based on his eponymous Thalmann Algorithm (VVAL18).[1] At the time of his death, Thalmann was serving as Assistant Medical Director of the Divers Alert Network (DAN) and an Assistant Clinical Professor in Anesthesiology at Duke University's Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology.[2]

Contents

  • Education 1
  • Naval career 2
  • Civilian career 3
  • Contributions to hyperbaric medicine 4
  • Awards 5
  • Bibliography 6
    • Refereed Journals 6.1
    • Non-Refereed Journals and Reports 6.2
    • Book Chapters 6.3
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9

Education

Thalmann graduated from Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal, Quebec. It was there that he met his future wife, a nursing student.

While on active duty, from 1975 to 1977, Dr. Thalmann conducted a two-year postdoctoral fellowship under the guidance of Claes Lundgren and Hermann Rahn, at the State University of New York at Buffalo, studying the effects of immersion and breathing bag placement in rebreathers on underwater exercise.[4]

Naval career

Dr. Thalmann served as Chief Medical Officer on board the ballistic missile submarine USS Thomas Jefferson for a single deployment, from 1971 to 1972 before being posted as a research diving medical officer at the United States Navy Experimental Diving Unit (NEDU) at the Washington Navy Yard, where he was stationed until 1975.

Following his post-doctoral fellowship in Buffalo, in 1977, Dr. Thalmann returned to NEDU, now located in Panama City, Florida, as Assistant Senior Medical Officer, where he began developing new dive tables and mixed-gas diving techniques.[5][6] While at NEDU, Thalmann created a number of unique and innovative underwater exercise devices, still in use today, intended to assist in gauging the underwater endurance of divers using various gas mixtures while performing physically demanding tasks.[7]

In 1985, Dr. Thalmann, now the Senior Medical Officer at NEDU, was selected for the NATO Undersea Medicine Personnel Exchange Program and assigned to the Royal Navy Institute of Naval Medicine, Alverstoke, United Kingdom. There he continued development of a new decompression table and worked on improving undersea thermal protection garments. Upon the conclusion of his exchange tour in 1987, Thalmann returned to Bethesda to serve as the commander of the Naval Medical Research Institute's diving medicine and physiology research division.

Civilian career

Following his retirement from the Navy in 1993, Thalmann stayed on at NMRI as a senior scientist in decompression research.[8] In July 1994 took a position in Durham, North Carolina at Duke's Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology and later accepted a simultaneous position as the Assistant Medical Director of DAN in 1995.

Dr. Thalmann died on July 24, 2004 in Durham, due to congestive heart failure, at the age of 59. He was committed to the sea on August 31, 2004 with services conducted aboard

  • Ed Thalmann Papers at Duke University Medical Center Archives

External links

  1. ^ Southerland, D.G.; Butler, F.K. (2001). "The U.S. Navy Dive Computer" (pdf). Retrieved 2012-10-24. (subscription required)
  2. ^ "Hard Hat History: Obituaries" (pdf). Faceplate. U.S. Navy. February 2005. p. 20. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  3. ^ "In Memoriam". Rensselaer Magazine.  
  4. ^ "Ed Thalmann, M.D., Assistant Medical Director at DAN, Dies".  
  5. ^ Butler, Frank K. "The U.S. Navy Decompression Computer". Cochran Undersea Technology. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  6. ^ "Ed Thalmann, M.D., Assistant Medical Director of Divers Alert Network for nine years, died July 24 in his Durham, North Carolina, home at the age of 59" (pdf). Underwater and Hyperbaric Medicine. European Underwater and Baromedical Society. September 2004. p. 42. 
  7. ^ Anecdotal information provided by Dr. Thalmann's daughters.
  8. ^ a b Pianadosi, Claude (Fall 2004). "In Memoriam: Edward Deforest Thalmann, 1945-2004" (pdf). Duke Anesthesiology Alumnus. Duke University Department of Anesthesiology. p. 1. 
  9. ^ Rausch, C.S. (2004-08-31). "Letter from Commanding Officer, USS Maryland to Ms. Katherine N. Thalmann". Department of the Navy. 

References

See also

  • Vann, R.D; E.D. Thalmann (1993). "Decompression Modeling and Physiology". In Bennett, P.B. and Elliott, D.H. eds. The Physiology and Medicine of Diving and Compressed Air Work (Fourth ed.). London: Bailliere Tindall.  
  • Thalmann, E.D., editor of Chapter 8: "Diving Medicine", in: U.S. Navy Diving Manual, Vol 1. 1984, 1993 revisions.. 
  • Invited Reviewer for: "Treatment of decompression sickness", Chapter 13. In: Edmonds, C.; Lowry, C.; Pennefather, J. (1992). Diving and Subaquatic Medicine (Third ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.  
  • Thalmann, E.D. (1996). "Gas Physiology in Diving: Decompression". In Fregley, M.J. and C.M. Batteis, eds. Handbook of Physiology, Section 4: Environmental Physiology Volume II. New York: The American Physiological Society. Oxford University Press. pp. 1012–1015. 
  • Thalmann, E.D. (1997). "Diving Hazards". In Langley, R.L, McLymore, R.L., Meggs, W.J. and Roberson, G.T. eds. Safety and Health in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries. Rockville, MD: Government Institutes.  

Book Chapters

  • Thalmann, E. D. (1974). "A prophylactic program for the prevention of otitis externa in saturation divers.". Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report. 10-74. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Thalmann, E. D.; M. M. Knott, and J. C. Crothers. (1974). "Determination of the adequacy of helmet ventilation in the Navy MK 12 and MK 5 hard-hat diving apparatus.". Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report. 16-74. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Spaur, W. H.; E. D. Thalmann and R. C. Maulbeck. (1978). "Carbon dioxide absorbent canister studies of the hot water heated, helium-oxygen mode, MK 12 surface-supplied diving system.". Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report. 20-78. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Spaur, W. H.; E. D. Thalmann and R. C. Maulbeck. (1979). "MK 12 surface-supplied diving system helium-oxygen emergency mode study.". Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report 8–79. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Piantadosi, C. A.; D. J. Ball, M. L. Nuckols and E. D. Thalmann. (1979). "Manned evaluation of the NCSC diver thermal protection (DTP) passive system prototype.". Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report. 13-79. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Piantadosi, C. A.; E. D. Thalmann and W. H. Spaur. (1980). "Improved life support capability in the MK 11 semi-closed circuit UBA by modification of the carbon dioxide absorbent canister.". Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report 5–80. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Thalmann, E. D.; I. P. B. Buckingham and W. H. Spaur. (1980). "Testing of decompression algorithms for use in the U.S. Navy underwater decompression computer (Phase I).". Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report. 11-80. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Gray, C. G.; E. D. Thalmann. (1980). "Manned evaluation of the pre-production MK 16 underwater breathing apparatus.". Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report. 13-80. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Gray, C. G.; E. D. Thalmann and R. Syklawer. (1981). "United States Coast Guard emergency underwater escape rebreather evaluation.". Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report 2–81. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Middleton, J. R.; E. D. Thalmann. (1981). "Manned evaluation of the pre-production MK 16 underwater breathing apparatus.". Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report 3–81. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Gray, C. G.; E. D. Thalmann. (1981). "Manned evaluation of Field Change 9/85 to the MK 11 UBA CO2 absorbent canister.". Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report 4–81. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Thalmann, E. D. (1983). "Computer algorithms used in computing the MK15/16 constant 0.7 ATA oxygen partial pressure decompression tables.". Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report 1–83. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Jaggaers, F. R.; E. D. Thalmann. (1983). "Manned evaluation of MK 15 closed circuit UBA canister duration at 13.4 °C and 2 °C.". Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report 6–83. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Thalmann, E. D.; F. K. Butler. (1983). "A procedure for doing multiple level dives on air using repetitive groups.". Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report. 13-83. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Thalmann, E. D. (1984). "Phase II testing of decompression algorithms for use in the U.S. Navy underwater decompression computer.". Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report 1–84. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Butler, F. K.; E. D. Thalmann. (1984). "Purging procedures for the Draeger LAR V underwater breathing apparatus.". Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report 5–84. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Butler, F. K.; E. D. Thalmann. (1984). "Oxygen Toxicity in Closed-Circuit SCUBA Divers.". Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report. 11-84. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Thalmann, E. D. (1985). "Development of a Decompression Algorithm for Constant Oxygen Partial Pressure in Helium Diving.". Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report 1–85. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Thalmann, E. D. (1985). "Air-N202 Decompression Computer Algorithm Development.". Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report 8–85. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Thalmann, E. D. (1985). "Repetitive/Multi-Level Dive Procedures for Constant 0.7 ATA Oxygen Partial Pressure in Nitrogen Diving.". Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report 9–85. 
  • Presswood, C. G.; E. D. Thalmann and M. D. Curley. (1986). "Test and evaluation of two prototype model underwater decompression monitors.". Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report. 10-86. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Thalmann, E. D.; R. Schedlich, J.R. Broome and P.E. Barker. (1987). "Evaluation of Passive Thermal Protection Systems for Cold Water Diving.". (Royal Navy) Institute of Naval Medicine Report. Alverstoke, England. 25-87. 
  • Weinberg, R. P.; E. D. Thalmann. (1990). "Effects of Hand and Foot Heating on Diver Thermal Balance.". Naval Medical Research Institute Report. 90-52. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Albin, G.; P. Massell and E. D. Thalmann. (1990). "Basic Operation and Preliminary Trials of a Detector for Stationary Gas Bubbles.". Naval Medical Research Institute Report. 91-39. 
  • Thorp, J. W.; D.M. Stevens, A.J. Dutka, T.J. Doubt and E.D. Thalmann. (1992). "Pyridostigmine Prophylaxis During Warm Water Diving Operations.". Navy Medicine 83 (1): 23–26. 
  • Survanshi SS, Weathersby PK, Homer LD, Thalmann ED. Design of Dive Trials. In: Lang MA, Vann RD eds: AAUS Repetitive Dive Workshop. Costa Mesa, CA. American Academy of Underwater Scientists, 1992:287-292.
  • Weathersby, P. K.; S.S. Survanshi, R.Y. Nishi, and E.D. Thalmann. (1992). "Statistically based decompression tables VII: Selection and treatment of primary air and N2O2 data.". Joint Report: Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory and Naval Medical Research Institute. NSMRL 1182 and NMRI 92-85. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Parker, E. C.; S.S. Survanshi, P.K. Weathersby, and E.D. Thalmann. (1992). "Statistically Based Decompression Tables VIII: Linear Exponential Kinetics.". Naval Medical Research Institute Report. 92-73. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Ball, R.; J. Himm, L. D. Homer, and E. D. Thalmann. (1994). "A Model of Bubble Evolution During Decompression Based on a Monte Carlo Simulation of Inert Gas Diffusion.". Naval Medical Research Institute Report. 94-36. 
  • Parker, E. C.; S.S. Survanshi, E.D. Thalmann and P.K. Weathersby. (1996). "Statistically based decompression tables IX: probabilistic models of the role of oxygen in human decompression sickness.". Naval Medical Research Institute Report. 96-05. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Survanshi, S. S.; P. K. Weathersby, and E. D. Thalmann. (1996). "Statistically based decompression tables X: Real-time decompression algorithm using a probabilistic model.". Naval Medical Research Institute Report. 96-06. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Thalmann, E. D.; P. C. Kelleher, S. S. Survanshi, E. C. Parker, and P. K. Weathersby. (1999). "Statistically Based Decompression Tables XI: Manned Validation of the LE Probabilistic Model for Air and Nitrogen-Oxygen Diving.". Naval Medical Research Institute Report. 99-01. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Survanshi, S. S.; E. C. Parker, E. D. Thalmann, and P. K. Weathersby. (1997). "Statistically based decompression tables XII: Volume I. Repetitive decompression tables for air and constant 0.7 ata PO2 in N2 using a probabilistic model.". Naval Medical Research Institute Report. 97-36. 
  • Survanshi, S. S.; E. C. Parker, E. D. Thalmann, and P. K. Weathersby. (1997). "Statistically based decompression tables XII: Volume II. Repetitive dive tables: Air.". Naval Medical Research Institute Report. 97-36. 
  • Survanshi, S. S.; E. C. Parker, E. D. Thalmann, and P. K. Weathersby. (1997). "Statistically based decompression tables XII: Volume III. Exceptional exposure tables: Air.". Naval Medical Research Institute Report. 97-36. 
  • Survanshi, S. S.; E. C. Parker, E. D. Thalmann, and P. K. Weathersby. (1997). "Statistically based decompression tables XII: Volume IV. Repetitive dive tables: 0.7 ATA PO2 in N2.". Naval Medical Research Institute Report. 97-36. 
  • Survanshi, S. S.; E. C. Parker, E. D. Thalmann, and P. K. Weathersby. (1997). "Statistically based decompression tables XII: Volume V. Exceptional exposure tables: 0.7 ATA PO2 in N2.". Naval Medical Research Institute Report. 97-36. 
  • Gerth, W. A.; E. D. Thalmann. (1998). "Vascular Effects of Underwater Low Frequency Sound in Immersed Individuals.". Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory Report. 
  • Latson, G. W.; E. T. Flynn, W. A. Gerth, and E. D. Thalmann. (2000). "Accelerated Decompression Using Oxygen for Submarine Rescue - Summary Report and Operational Guidance.". Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report. 11-00. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Hamilton Jr, R. W.; E. D. Thalmann and D. J. Temple. (2002). "Multi-Day Air Saturation at 20 and 22 FSW With Direct Ascent: Data Report on Project 92-09.". Naval Medical Research Institute Report Report. 02-01. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Hamilton Jr, R. W.; E. D. Thalmann and D. J. Temple. (2002). "Surface Decompression Diving: Data Report on Protocol 90-02.". Naval Medical Research Institute Report Report. ADA455075. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  • Thalmann, E. D. (2003). "Suitability of the USN MK15(VVAL18) Decompression Algorithm for Air Diving.". Navy Exp. Diving Unit Res. Report. 03-12. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 

Non-Refereed Journals and Reports

  • Raymond, L. W.; J. H. Crothers; G. Lindgren; E. D. Thalmann; W. H. Spaur; W. R. Braithwaite; H. C. Langworthy; T. E. Berghage (1973). "Indirect calorimetry in man in helium-oxygen at 50 atmospheres pressure.". Clin. Res. 21 (4): 848. 
  • Raymond, L. W.; E. D. Thalmann; G. Lindgren; H. C. Langworthy; W. H. Spaur; J. H. Crothers; W. R. Braithwaite; Berghage, T. E. (1975). "Thermal homeostasis of resting man in helium-oxygen at 1-50 atmospheres absolute.". Undersea Biomed. Res. 2 (1): 51–67.  
  • Berghage, T. E.; L. E. Lash; W. R. Braithwaite; E. D. Thalmann (1975). "Intentional tremor on a helium-oxygen chamber dive to 49.5 ATA.". Undersea Biomed. Res. 2 (3): 215–22.  
  • Spaur, W. H.; L. W. Raymond; M. M. Knott; J. H. Crothers; W. R. Braithwaite; E. D. Thalmann; D. F. Uddin (1977). "Dyspnea in divers at 49.5 ATA: Mechanical, not chemical in origin.". Undersea Biomed. Res. 4 (2): 183–98.  
  • Raymond, L. W.; W. H. Spaur; E. D. Thalmann (1978). "Prevention of divers' ear.". Br Med J. 1 (6104): 48.  
  • Spaur, W. H.; E. D. Thalmann; E. T. Flynn; J. L. Zumrick; T. W.Reedy; J. M. Ringleberg (1978). "Development of unlimited duration excursion tables and procedures for helium-oxygen saturation diving.". Undersea Biomed. Res. 5 (2): 159–177.  
  • Thalmann, E. D.; D. K. Sponholtz; C. E. G. Lundgren (1978). "Chamber-based system for physiological monitoring of submerged exercising subjects.". Undersea Biomed. Res. 5 (3): 293–300.  
  • Van Liew, H. D.; E. D. Thalmann; D. K. Sponholtz (1979). "Diffusion-dependence of pulmonary gas mixing at 5.5 and 9.5 ATA.". Undersea Biomed. Res. 6 (3): 251–258.  
  • Thalmann, E. D.; D. K. Sponholtz; C. E. G. Lundgren (1979). "Effects of immersion and static lung loading on submerged exercise at depth.". Undersea Biomed. Res. 6 (3): 259–290.  
  • Piantadosi, C. A.; R. L. Clinton; E. D. Thalmann (1979). "Prolonged oxygen exposures in immersed exercising divers at 25 fsw (1.76 ATA).". Undersea Biomed. Res. 6 (4): 347–356.  
  • Piantadosi, C. A.; E. D. Thalmann (1980). "Thermal responses in humans exposed to cold hyperbaric helium-oxygen.". J. Appl. Physiol. 49 (6): 1099–1106.  
  • Piantadosi, C. A.; E. D. Thalmann; W. H. Spaur (1981). "Metabolic response to respiratory heat loss and core cooling.". J. Appl. Physiol. 50 (4): 829–830.  
  • Van Liew, H. D.; E. D. Thalmann; D. K. Sponholtz (1981). "Diffusive gas mixing in the lung in hyperbaric environments.". Prog. Resp. Res. 16: 110–114. 
  • Van Liew, H. D.; E. D. Thalmann; D. K. Sponholtz (1981). "Hinderance to diffusive gas mixing in the lung in hyperbaric environments.". J. Appl. Physiol. 51 (2): 243–247.  
  • Butler, F. K.; E. D. Thalmann (1983). "Report of an isolated mid-frequency hearing loss following inner ear barotrauma.". Undersea Biomed. Res. 10 (2): 131–134.  
  • Thalmann, E. D. (1983). "Phenytoin sodium in oxygen-toxicity-induced seizures.". Annals of Emergency Medicine 12 (9): 592–3.  
  • Butler, F. K.; E. D. Thalmann (1986). "Central Nervous System Oxygen Toxicity in Closed Circuit SCUBA Divers II.". Undersea Biomed. Res. 13 (2): 193–223.  
  • Thalmann, E. D. (1989). "Testing of revised unlimited-duration upward excursions during helium-oxygen saturation dives.". Undersea Biomed. Res. 16 (3): 195–218.  
  • Weathersby, P. K.; S. S. Survanshi; L. D. Homer; E. Parker; E. D. Thalmann (1992). "Predicting the time of occurrence of decompression sickness.". J. Appl. Physiol. 72 (4): 1541–1548.  
  • Stevens, D. M.; B. G. Caras; E. T. Flynn; A. J. Dutka; J. W. Thorp; E. D. Thalmann (1992). "Management of herniated intervertebral disks during saturation dives: a case report.". Undersea Biomed. Res. 19 (3): 191–8.  
  • Joye, D. D.; J. R. Clarke; N. A. Carlson; E. D. Thalmann (1994). "Characterization and measurement of elastance with application to underwater breathing apparatus.". Undersea Hyperb Med. 21 (1): 53–658.  
  • Ball, R.; J. Himm; L.D. Homer; E. D. Thalmann (1995). "Does the time course of bubble evolution explain decompression sickness risk?". Undersea Hyperb Med. 22 (3): 263–280.  
  • Jiang, Y.; L.D. Homer; E. D. Thalmann (1996). "Development and interactions of two inert gas bubbles during decompression.". Undersea Hyperb Med. 23 (3): 131–140.  
  • Thalmann, E. D.; Parker E. C.; S.S. Survanshi; P. K. Weathersby (1997). "Improved probabilistic decompression model risk predictions using linear-exponential kinetics.". Undersea Hyperb Med. 24 (4): 255–274.  
  • Clayton, C. E.; M. S. Carraway; H. B. Suliman; E. D. Thalmann; K. N. Thalmann; D. E. Schmechel; C. A. Piantadosi (2001). "Inhaled carbon monoxide and hyperoxic lung injury in rats.". Am J Physiol Cell Mol Physiol. 281 (4): L949–57.  
  • Pollock, N. W.; M. J. Natoli; W. A. Gerth; E. D. Thalmann; R. D. Vann (2003). "Risk of decompression sickness during exposure to high cabin altitude after diving.". Aviat Space Environ Med. 74 (11): 1163–8.  
  • Piantadosi, C. A.; E. D. Thalmann (2004). "Pathology: whales, sonar and decompression sickness.". Nature. 428 (6984): 1 p following 716; discussion 2 p following 716.  
  • Vann, R. D.; W. A. Gerth; P. J. DeNoble; C. F. Pieper; E. D. Thalmann (2004). "Experimental trials to assess the risks of decompression sickness in flying after diving.". Undersea Hyperb Med. 31 (4): 431–44.  
  • Demchenko, I. T.; Y. I. Luchakov; A. N. Moskvin; D. R. Gutsaeva; B. W. Allen; E. D. Thalmann; C. A. Piantadosi (2005). "Cerebral blood flow and brain oxygenation in rats breathing oxygen under pressure.". J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 25 (10): 1288–300.  

Refereed Journals

Bibliography

Gold star
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Awards

In addition, Dr. Thalmann's theoretical work is being used to revise the standard United States Navy Decompression Tables employed for less complex dives using compressed air. This will eventually benefit future military divers as well as the thousands of civilian recreational divers, worldwide. Dr. Thalmann was also part of the team that developed the protocols used to protect U.S. astronauts from decompression sickness when they leave the 1 atmosphere environment of the International Space Station for the lower atmospheric pressure in their space suits.[8]

Using the concepts of maximum likelihood as a theoretical foundation, Dr. Thalmann supervised hundreds of experimental dives to develop and verify a new set of decompression tables to protect divers. These tables were approved for use by the United States Navy and provide for much greater flexibility in depth and duration for safe diving and allow for the use of breathing gases other than air. This increased the operational capabilities of U.S. military divers, and the Thalmann Algorithm is being used by the United States Navy to develop diver-carried computers to calculate safe individual time limits for complex dive of varying depth.

Dr. Thalmann's initial studies were aimed at developing a mathematical algorithm that reflected, as closely as possible, the science of gas exchange in human tissues and which could replace early 20th century Haldanean procedures that had been modified in the mid-20th century based largely on trial and error.

Contributions to hyperbaric medicine

[9]

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