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Elamo-Dravidian languages

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Title: Elamo-Dravidian languages  
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Subject: Dravidian languages, Elamite language, Paleolinguistics, Dravidian studies, South Indian culture
Collection: Dravidian Languages, Elamite Language, Proposed Language Families
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Elamo-Dravidian languages

Elamo-Dravidian
(obsolete)
Geographic
distribution:
South Asia, West Asia
Linguistic classification: Proposed language family
Subdivisions:
Glottolog: None

The Elamo-Dravidian language family is a hypothesised language family that links the Dravidian languages of India to the extinct Elamite language of ancient Elam (present-day southwestern Iran). Linguist David McAlpin has been a chief proponent of the Elamo-Dravidian hypothesis. Recent collaborative work with American Indologist Franklin C Southworth further establishes this family in academic circles.[1] The extinct Harappan language (the language or languages of the Indus Valley Civilization) may also be part of this family. Proponents of the larger Nostratic language family hypothesis accepted Elamo-Dravidian at an early stage.

Contents

  • Linguistic arguments 1
  • Proposed cultural links 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4

Linguistic arguments

McAlpin (1975) in his study identified some similarities between Elamite and Dravidian. He proposed that 20% of Dravidian and Elamite vocabulary are cognates while 12% are probable cognates. He further proposed that Elamite and Dravidian possess similar second-person pronouns and parallel case endings. For example the term for mother in the Elamite language and in different Dravidian languages like Tamil is "amma".[2] They have identical derivatives, abstract nouns, and the same verb stem+tense marker+personal ending structure. Both have two positive tenses, a "past" and a "non-past".[3]

  1. ^ Southworth, Franklin. "Rice in Dravidian". Springer. Retrieved 22 March 2014. 
  2. ^ The Cambridge History of Iran 2 by I. Gershevitch p.13
  3. ^ David McAlpin, "Toward Proto-Elamo-Dravidian", Language vol. 50 no. 1 (1974); David McAlpin: "Elamite and Dravidian, Further Evidence of Relationships", Current Anthropology vol. 16 no. 1 (1975); David McAlpin: "Linguistic prehistory: the Dravidian situation", in Madhav M. Deshpande and Peter Edwin Hook: Aryan and Non-Aryan in India, Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (1979); David McAlpin, "Proto-Elamo-Dravidian: The Evidence and its Implications", Transactions of the American Philosophical Society vol. 71 pt. 3, (1981)
  4. ^ P. 83 The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture: The Indo-Aryan Migration Debate By Edwin Bryant
  5. ^ P. 18 The Orāons of Chōtā Nāgpur: their history, economic life, and social organization. by Sarat Chandra Roy, Rai Bahadur; Alfred C Haddon
  6. ^ P. 12 Origin and Spread of the Tamils By V. R. Ramachandra Dikshitar
  7. ^ P. 32 Ideology and status of Sanskrit : contributions to the history of the Sanskrit language by Jan E M Houben
  8. ^ P. 45 The Brahui language, an old Dravidian language spoken in parts of Baluchistan and Sind by Sir Denys Bray
  9. ^ Ancient India; Culture and Thought By M. L. Bhagi
  10. ^ P. 23 Ceylon & Indian History from Early Times to 1505 A. D. By L. H. Horace Perera, M. Ratnasabapathy
  11. ^ J. H. Elfenbein, A periplous of the ‘Brahui problem’, Studia Iranica vol. 16 (1987), pp. 215-233.

References

See also

The distribution of living Dravidian languages, concentrated mostly in southern India but with isolated pockets in Southern Afghanistan and Pakistan (Brahui) and in Central and East India (Kurukh, Malto), suggests to some a wider past distribution of the Dravidian languages. However, there are varied opinions about the origin of northern Dravidian languages like Brahui, Kurukh and Malto.[4] The Kurukh have traditionally claimed to be from the Deccan Peninsula,[5] more specifically Karnataka. The same tradition has existed of the Brahui.[6][7] They call themselves immigrants.[8] Many scholars hold this same view of the Brahui[9] such as L. H. Horace Perera and M. Ratnasabapathy.[10] Moreover, it has now been demonstrated that the Brahui only migrated to Balochistan from central India after 1000 CE. The absence of any older Iranian loanwords in Brahui supports this hypothesis. The main Iranian contributor to Brahui vocabulary, Balochi, is a western Iranian language like Kurdish.[11]

Apart from the linguistic similarities, the Elamo-Dravidian Hypothesis rests on the claim that agriculture spread from the Near East to the Indus Valley region via Elam. This would suggest that agriculturalists brought a new language as well as farming from Elam. Supporting ethno-botanical data include the Near Eastern origin and name of wheat (D. Fuller). Later evidence of extensive trade between Elam and the Indus Valley Civilization suggests ongoing links between the two regions.

Proposed cultural links
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