EMBRAER E-Jets

E-Jet family
E-170/E-175/E-190/E-195
An Embraer 170 in new livery of launch customer LOT Polish Airlines landing at Amsterdam Airport (2012).
Role Airliner
National origin Brazil
Manufacturer Embraer
First flight February 19, 2002
Introduction March 17, 2004 with LOT Polish Airlines
Status In service
Primary users Republic Airlines
Air Canada
JetBlue Airways
Compass Airlines
Produced 2001–present
Number built 1,000+[1]
Unit cost
E-170: US$28.5 million; E-195: $47.0 million[2]
Variants Embraer Lineage 1000
Developed into Embraer E-Jet E2 family

The Embraer E-Jet family is a series of narrow-body medium-range twin-engine jet airliners produced by Brazilian aerospace conglomerate Embraer. Launched at the Paris Air Show in 1999, and entering production in 2002, the aircraft series has been a commercial success.[3] The aircraft is used by both mainline and regional airlines around the world. As of 31 December 2012, there is a backlog of 185 firm orders for the E-Jets, 580 options and 908 units delivered.[4]

Design and development

The Embraer E-Jets line is composed of two main commercial families and a business jet variant. The smaller E-170 and E-175 make up the base model aircraft. The E-190 and E-195 are stretched versions, with different engines and larger wing, horizontal stabilizer and landing gear structures. The 170 and 175 share 95% commonality, as do the 190 and 195. The two families share near 89% commonality, with identical fuselage cross-sections and avionics, featuring the Honeywell Primus Epic Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) suite.[5]

All E-Jets use four-abreast seating (2+2) and have a "double-bubble" design, which Embraer developed for its commercial passenger jets, that provides stand-up headroom. Although commonly referred to with simply an "E" prefix, the jets are technically still Embraer Regional Jets ("ERJ"s), which still refers to the smaller Embraer ERJ range.[6] Embraer dropped the ERJ prefix in its advertising early in production. The E-190/195 series of aircraft have similar capacities to the initial versions of the McDonnell Douglas DC-9 and Boeing 737, which have always been considered mainline airliners.


Embraer first disclosed that it was studying a new 70-seat aircraft, which it called the EMB 170, in 1997, concurrently with announcing the development of its ERJ 135.[7] The EMB 170 was to feature a new wing and larger-diameter fuselage mated to the nose and cockpit of the ERJ 145.[8][9] In February 1999 Embraer announced it had abandoned the derivative approach in favour of an all-new design.[10][11]

The E-jet family was formally launched at the Paris Air Show in June 1999. Launch customers for the aircraft were the French airline Régional Compagnie Aérienne Européenne with ten orders and five options for the E-170; and the Swiss airline Crossair with an order for 30 E-170s and 30 E-190s.[12] Production of parts to build the prototype and test airframes began in July 2000.[13] Full production began in 2002, at a new factory built by Embraer at its São José dos Campos base.[14]

After the launch of the E-Jet programme in 1999 and several delays in the certification process, the E-170 received type certification from the aviation authorities of Brazil, Europe and the United States in February 2004.[15][16]

In November 2011, Embraer announced it would re-engine the E-Jet family and deliver the first example before 2018.[17] On January 8, 2013, Embraer announced its selection of Pratt & Whitney to provide exclusive power for the re-engined E-Jet family.[18][19]

In February 2012, Embraer announced it was studying the development of a new variant with 130 seating capacity.[20] The study was expected to be completed by the end of 2012.[21]

Operational history

The first E-170s were delivered in the second week of March 2004 to LOT Polish Airlines, followed by US Airways subsidiary MidAtlantic Airways and Alitalia[22][15] (launch customer Crossair had in the meantime ceased to exist after its takeover of Swissair; and fellow launch customer Régional Compagnie Aérienne deferred its order,[23] not receiving its first E-jet—an E-190LR—until 2006.[24]) LOT operated the first commercial flight of an E-jet on 17 March 2004, from Warsaw to Vienna.[25] The largest single order for any type of E-Jets has come from JetBlue for 100 E-190s, and options for 100 more.[5]

The 400th E-jet was delivered in 2008, to Republic Airlines in the U.S.[26] On 6 November of that year, JetBlue set the record for the longest flight of the E-190 family when one of its aircraft made a non-stop flight from Anchorage, Alaska (Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport) to Buffalo, New York (Buffalo Niagara International Airport), a total of 2,694 nmi (4,989 km). This was an empty aircraft on a non-revenue flight. The aircraft eventually returned to JFK after a two-month-long charter service with Vice Presidential candidate Sarah Palin.[27] In September 2009 the 600th E-jet built was delivered to LOT Polish Airlines.[28]

On 13 September 2013 a ceremony was held at the Embraer factory in São José dos Campos to mark the delivery of the 1,000th E-jet family aircraft, an E-175, to Republic Airlines. The E-175 was delivered in an American Eagle Airlines colour scheme with a special "1,000th E-Jet" decal above the cabin windows.[1][26]

Variants



E-170 and 175

The E-170/E-175 models in the 80-seat range are the smaller in the E-Jet family. They are powered with General Electric CF34-8E engines of 14,200 pounds (62.28 kN) thrust each. The E-170 and E-175 directly compete with the Bombardier CRJ-700 and Bombardier CRJ-900, respectively, and loosely compete with the turboprop Bombardier Q400. They also seek to replace the market segment occupied by earlier competing designs such as the BAe 146 and Fokker 70.

The Embraer 170 was the first version produced. The prototype 170-001, registration PP-XJE, was rolled out on 29 October 2001, with first flight 119 days later on 19 February 2002. The aircraft was displayed to the public in May 2002 at the Regional Airline Association convention. After a positive response from the airline community, Embraer launched the E-175. First flight of the stretched E-175 was on June 2003.[29] The launch U.S. customer For the EMB 170 was US Airways, after FAA certification, the aircraft entered into revenue service on April 4, 2004 operated by the MidAtlantic division of US Airways, Inc. The first E-175 was delivered to Air Canada and entered service in July 2005.[29] The 170-001 prototype performed its last flight on April 11, 2012. Its destiny was disassembly in the US for spare parts.

E-190 and 195

The E-190/195 models are a larger stretch of the E-170/175 models fitted with a new, larger wing, larger horizontal stabilizer and a new engine, the GE CF34-10E,[5] rated at 18,500 lb (82.30 kN). These aircraft compete with the Bombardier CRJ-1000. In addition, being in the 110-seat range, they compete with smaller mainline jets including the Boeing 717-200 and 737-500/-600, the Airbus A318, and some of the upcoming Bombardier CSeries.

The first flight of the E-190 was on March 12, 2004 (PP-XMA),[30] with the first flight of the E-195 (PP-XMJ)[30] on December 7 of the same year. The launch customer of the E-190 was New York-based low-cost carrier JetBlue with 100 orders and 100 options. British low-cost carrier Flybe launched the E-195 with 14 orders and 12 options.[31]

As the 190/195 models are of mainline aircraft size, many airlines will operate them as such, fitting them with a business class section and operating them themselves, instead of having them flown by a regional airline partner. For example, Air Canada operates 45 E-190 aircraft fitted with 9 business-class and 88 economy-class seats (currently modifying from 84 seats) as part of its primary fleet.

Embraer Lineage 1000

Main article: Embraer Lineage 1000

On 2 May 2006, Embraer announced plans for the business jet variant of the E-190. This would have the same structure as the E-190, but with an extended range of up to 4,200 nm, and luxury seating for up to 19. It was certified by the USA Federal Aviation Administration on 7 January 2009. The first two production aircraft were delivered in December 2008.

Undeveloped variants

E-195X

Embraer considered producing an aircraft which was known as the E-195X, a stretched version of the E-195. It would have seated approximately 130 passengers. The E-195X was apparently a response to an American Airlines request for an aircraft to replace its McDonnell Douglas MD-80s.[32] Embraer abandoned plans for the 195X in May 2010, following concerns that its range would be too short.[33]

E-Jets Second Generation

Main article: Embraer E-Jet E2 family

In 2011, Embraer announced that it would focus its attention on developing revamped versions of the E-Jet family, rather than an all-new aircraft, for the time being. The new variants would be better-positioned to compete with the Bombardier CSeries, and would be powered by new engines with larger diameter fans that would offer improvements in specific fuel consumption, as well as slightly taller landing gear and possibly a new aluminum or carbon fiber-based wing. Air Lease Corp has tentatively named the revamped E-Jet the E-198, and has advised Embraer to stretch the E-190 by one row (seating 118 in a one-class configuration) and the E-195 by two to three rows (seating 130 to 134). Later on, Embraer named it "second generation".[34] GE, Pratt & Whitney, and Rolls-Royce were all possible engine suppliers.[35] Pratt & Whitney's geared turbofan engine was selected in January 2013 as the engine for the new E-Jets versions.[19] Honeywell Primus Epic 2 was selected as the avionics package [34]

Operators



Orders and deliveries

List of Embraer's E-Jet family deliveries and orders:

Model Photo Firm Orders Options Deliveries Firm Order Backlog
E-170 192 27 186 6
E-175 315 463 175 140
E-190 560 176 482 78
E-195 145 22 123 22
Total 1212 688 966 246

Source: Embraer[39]

Accidents and incidents

  • On 24 August 2010, Henan Airlines Flight 8387, an Embraer E-190 that departed from Harbin, People's Republic of China, crash landed about 1 km short of the runway at Yichun Lindu Airport, resulting in 42 deaths.[40] This crash is the first and only fatal hull-loss involving the E-Jet family as of October 2013.
  • 16 September 2011: TAME Flight 148, Embraer E-190 registration HC-CEZ, flying from Loja with 97 passengers and 6 crew on board, slipped off the runway at Mariscal Sucre International Airport.[41]
  • 27 February 2012: Shuttle America Flight 5124, an Embraer E-170, flying from Atlanta with 67 passengers and 4 crew on board, made an emergency landing without nose gear extended at Newark Airport.[42][43]
  • 29 June 2012: Tianjin Airlines Flight 7554, an Embraer E-190, flying from Hotan Airport to Ürümqi Diwopu International Airport experienced an attempted hijacking in the western Chinese province of Xinjiang that was thwarted by passengers and crew members.[44]

Specifications

Variant E-170
(ERJ170-100)
E-175
(ERJ170-200)
E-190
(ERJ190-100)
E-195
(ERJ190-200)
Flight Deck Crew 2 pilots
Passenger capacity 80 (1-class, 29 in/30 in pitch)
78 (1-class, 30 in/31 in)
70 (1-class, 32 in)
70 (2-class, 36 in/32 in)
[45]
88 (1-class, 30 in pitch)
86 (1-class, 31 in)
78 (1-class, 32 in)
78 (2-class, standard)
[46]
114 (1-class, 29 in/30 in pitch)
106 (1-class, 31 in)
98 (1-class, 32 in)
94 (2-class, standard)
[47]
122 (1-class, 30 in/31 in pitch)
118 (1-class, 31 in)
108 (1-class, 32 in)
106 (2-class, standard)
[48]
Length 29.90 m
(98 ft 1 in)
31.68 m (103 ft 11 in) 36.24 m (118 ft 11 in) 38.65 m
(126 ft 10 in)
Wingspan 26.00 m (85 ft 4 in) 28.72 m (94 ft 3 in)
Height 9.67 m
(32 ft 4 in)
10.28 m
(34 ft 7 in)
Empty Weight 21,140 kg (46,610 lb) 21,810 kg (48,080 lb) 28,080 kg (61,910 lb) 28,970 kg (63,870 lb)
Maximum takeoff weight 35,990 kg (79,340 lb) (STD)
37,200 kg (82,000 lb) (LR)
38,600 kg (85,100 lb) (AR)
37,500 kg (82,700 lb) (STD)
38,790 kg (85,520 lb) (LR)
40,370 kg (89,000 lb) (AR)
47,790 kg (105,360 lb) (STD)
50,300 kg (110,900 lb) (LR)
51,800 kg (114,200 lb) (AR)
48,790 kg (107,560 lb) (STD)
50,790 kg (111,970 lb) (LR)
52,290 kg (115,280 lb) (AR)
Max payload weight 9,100 kg (20,100 lb) (STD&LR)
9,840 kg (21,690 lb) (AR)
10,080 kg (22,220 lb) (STD&LR)
10,360 kg (22,840 lb) (AR)
13,080 kg (28,840 lb) 13,650 kg (30,090 lb)
Takeoff Run at MTOW 1,644 m (5,394 ft) 2,244 m (7,362 ft) 2,056 m (6,745 ft) 2,179 m (7,149 ft)
Powerplants GE CF34-8E turbofans
61.4 kN (13,800 lbf) thrust each
63.2 kN (14,200 lbf) APR thrust each
GE CF34-10E turbofans
82.3 kN (18,500 lbf) thrust each
89 kN (20,000 lbf) APR thrust each
Maximum speed 890 km/h (481 kn, Mach 0.82)
Range STD: 3,334 km (1,800 nmi)
LR: 3,889 km (2,100 nmi)
AR: 3,892 km (2,102 nmi)
STD: 3,334 km (1,800 nmi)
LR: 3,889 km (2,100 nmi)
AR: 3,706 km (2,001 nmi)
STD: 3,334 km (1,800 nmi)
LR: 4,260 km (2,300 nmi)
AR: 4,448 km (2,402 nmi)
STD: 2,593 km (1,400 nmi)
LR: 3,334 km (1,800 nmi)
AR: 4,077 km (2,201 nmi)
Maximum fuel load 9,335 kg (20,580 lb) 12,971 kg (28,596 lb)
Service ceiling 41,000 ft (12,500 m)
Thrust-to-weight 0.42:1 0.39:1 0.41:1 0.39:1
Fuselage and cabin cross-section
Outer width 3.01 m (9 ft 11 in)
Cabin width 2.74 m (9 ft 0 in)
Outer height 3.35 m (11 ft 0 in)
Cabin height 2.00 m (6 ft 7 in)

Sources: Embraer E-jet[49]

See also

Aviation portal
Brazil portal
Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

References

External links

  • Embraer E-Jets
  • Airliners.net: Embraer E-170/175/190/195

Template:Embraer

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.