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Engineering school

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Engineering school

Engineering education is the activity of teaching knowledge and principles related to the professional practice of engineering. It includes the initial education for becoming an engineer and any advanced education and specializations that follow. Engineering education is typically accompanied by additional examinations and supervised training as the requirements for a professional engineering license.

Technology education in primary and secondary schools often serves as the foundation for engineering education at the university level. (Douglas, Iverson & Kalyandurg, 2004). In the United States, engineering education is a part of the STEM initiative in public schools. Service-learning in engineering education is gaining popularity within the variety of disciplinary focuses within engineering education including mechanical engineering, construction science, computer science and engineering, electrical engineering, and other forms of related education.

Africa

Kenya

Engineering training in Kenya is typically provided by the universities. Registration of engineers is governed by the Engineers Registration Act. A candidate stands to qualify as a registered engineer, R.Eng, if he/she is a holder of a minimum four years post-secondary Engineering Education and a minimum of three years post graduation work experience.[1]

All registrations are undertaken by the Engineers Registration Board which is a statutory body established through an Act of the Kenyan Parliament in 1969. A minor revision was done in 1992, to accommodate Technician Engineer grade. The Board has been given the responsibility of regulating the activities and conduct of Practicing Engineers in the Republic of Kenya in accordance with the functions and powers conferred upon it by the Act. Under CAP 530 of the Laws of Kenya, it is illegal for an engineer to practice or call himself an engineer if not registered with the Board. Registration with the Board is thus a license to practice engineering in Kenya.


South Africa

Engineering training in South Africa is typically provided by the universities.[2] The qualifications provided by these institutions must have an Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA) accreditation for the qualification for graduates of these institutions to be registered as Candidate Engineers.

The academic training performed by the universities is typically in the form of a four-year B.Sc(Eng) or BEng degree. For the degree to be accredited, the course material must conform to the ECSA Exit Level Outcomes (ELO).

Certified Professional Engineers (PrEng) are persons that are accredited by ECSA as an engineering professional. Legally, a Certified Professional Engineers sign off is required for any major project to be implemented, in order to ensure the safety and standards of the project.

Tanzania

Engineering training in Tanzania is typically provided by various universities and technical institutions in the country. Graduate Engineers are registered by Engineers Registration Board (ERB) after undergoing three years of practical training. A candidate stands to qualify as a professional engineer, P.Eng, if he/she is a holder of a minimum four years post-secondary Engineering Education and a minimum of three years post graduation work experience. Engineers Registration Board is a statutory body established through an Act of the Tanzanian Parliament in 1968. Minor revision was done in 1997 to address the issue of engineering professional excellence in the country.

The Board has been given the responsibility of regulating the activities and conduct of Practicing Engineers in the United Republic of Tanzania in accordance with the functions and powers conferred upon it by the Act. According to Tanzania Laws, it is illegal for an engineer to practice or call himself an engineer if not registered with the Board. Registration with the Board is thus a license to practice engineering in United Republic of Tanzania.

Asia

India

Main article: Engineering education in India

In India, there are several engineering colleges imparting undergraduate and graduate courses in engineering, applied engineering and sciences. The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), the Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIITs) and the National Institutes of Technology (NITs) are the renowned and reputed institutes in the country. In total more than 5000 universities and colleges offer engineering courses. [3]

Indonesia

List of engineering schools in Indonesia

  1. Faculty of Engineering of Andalas University
  2. Faculty of Engineering of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University
  3. Faculty of Engineering of University of Indonesia
  4. Faculty of Engineering of Gadjah Mada University
  5. Bandung Institute of Technology
  6. Tenth of November Institute of Technology
  7. Faculty of Engineering of University of Lampung

Malaysia

Activities on Engineering Education in Malaysia is spearheaded by the Society of Engineering Education Malaysia (SEEM). SEEM was established in 2007 and was launched on 23 February 2009. The idea of establishing Society of Engineering Education was initiated on April, 2005 with the setting up of a Pro-team Committee for SEEM. The objectives of this society are to contribute for the development of education in engineering education field, science and technology including teaching and learning, counseling, research, service and public relations. Services and guidance given by the association are;

i) Formation of the direction and responsibility of engineering education to national prosperity.

ii) Coordination purposes and engineering education programs in engineering educational institutions, industry and professional bodies and the public.

iii) Improvement of teaching materials and methods of implementation.

iv) Coordination of conferences, workshops and seminars in improving the quality of engineering education.

v) The addition of experts in the field of engineering education through publications and educational programs and research.

vi) Promotion of research collaboration between members of the engineering education.

SEEM secretariat is currently located at RCEE (Regional Centre for Engineering Education) is set up for the region.

Pakistan

In Pakistan engineering certification is carried out by the Pakistan Engineering Council, a statutory body, constituted under the PEC Act No. V of 1976 of the constitution of Pakistan and amended vide Ordinance No.XXIII of 2006, to regulate the engineering profession in the country. It aims to achieve rapid and sustainable growth in all national, economic and social fields. The council is responsible for maintaining realistic and internationally relevant standards of professional competence and ethics for engineers in the country. PEC interacts with the Government, both at the Federal and Provincial level by participating in Commissions, Committees and Advisory Bodies. PEC is a fully representative body of the engineering community in the country.

Institute of Engineers Pakistan (IEP) The Institute of Engineers Pakistan is a purely professional body that aims to:

  • Promote and advance the science, practice, and business of engineering in all its branches throughout Pakistan.
  • Promote efficiency in the engineering practice and profession.
  • Regulate the professional activities and assist in maintaining high standard in the general conduct of its members.
  • Lay down the professional code of ethics and to make it mandatory for its members in their professional conduct.
  • Help in the acquisition and exchange of technical knowledge
  • Promote professional interest and social welfare of its members.
  • Encourage original research in engineering, conservation and economic utilization of the resources of the country.
  • Foster coordination with similar institution in other countries and educational institutions in Pakistan and abroad for mutual benefits.
  • To disseminate information and knowledge among engineers through lectures, conferences, seminars and publication of journal and papers.
  • Cooperate with various government agencies and industrial enterprises advising them in matters concerning the profession and practice of engineering and promotion of technical education.

Philippines

The Professional Regulation Commission is the regulating body for engineers in the Philippines.

Taiwan

Engineering is one of the most popular majors among universities in Taiwan. The engineering degrees are over a quarter of the bachelor degrees in Taiwan.

Europe

Austria

In Austria, similar to Germany, an engineering degree can be obtained from either Universities or Fachhochschulen. As in most of Europe, the education usually consists of a 3-year Bachelor's Degree and a 2-year Master's Degree.

A lower engineering degree is offered by Höheren Technische Lehranstalten, (HTL, Higher Technical Institute), a form of secondary college which reaches from grade 9 to 13. There are disciplines like civil engineering, electronics, information technology, etc.

In the 5th year of HTL, as in other secondary schools in Austria, there is a final exam, called Matura. Graduates obtain an Ingenieur engineering degree after three years of work in the studied field.

Denmark

In Denmark, the engineering degree is delivered by either Universities or Engineering Colleges (e.g. Engineering College of Aarhus).

Students receive first a baccalaureate degree (3 years of studies) followed by a Master's degree (1–2 years of studies) according to the principles of the Bologna declaration, though traditionally. The engineering doctorate degree is the PhD (3 years of studies).

The quality of Danish engineering expertise has long been much vaunted. Danish engineers especially from Engineering Colleges have also been praised at being very practical (i.e. skilled at physical work related to their discipline), ascribed to the high quality of the apprenticeship courses many Danish engineers go through as part of their education.

Finland

Finland's system is derived from Germany's system. Two kinds of schools are recognized, the universities and the Ammattikorkeakoulus (literally vocational college, which are some times translated as University of applied sciences.

Universities award typically 'Bachelor of Science in Technology' and 'Master of Science in Technology' degrees. Bachelor's degree is a three-year degree as Master's degree is equivalent for two-year full-time studies.[4] In Finnish the master's degree is called diplomi-insinööri, similarly as in Germany (Diplom-Ingenieur). The degrees are awarded by engineering schools or faculties in universities (in Aalto University, Oulu and Vaasa) or by separate universities of technology (Tampere UT and Lappeenranta UT). The degree is a scientific, theoretical taught Master's degree. Master's thesis is important part of Master's degree studies. Master's degree qualifies for further study into Licentiate or Doctorate. Because of the Bologna process, the degree tekniikan kandidaatti ("Bachelor of Technology"), corresponding to three years of study into the Master degree, has been introduced.

The AMK's are municipally administered schools that traditionally award 3.5-, to 4.5-year vocational degrees called insinööri (amk). The aim of the degree is professional competency with less emphasis on scientific study. Although they may be called "Bachelor's degrees" in English, Finnish universities do not recognize them as equal to tekniikan kandidaatti, but require approximately one year of additional study. Recently, AMK's have also began awarding a higher AMK degrees (Master of Engineering), designed for AMK-engineers already involved in the working life (at least two years of professional experience). AMK's do not have the right to award Licentiates or Doctorates. Similarly, AMK-degree does not entitle one to apply for academic postgraduate studies without further preliminary studies at university.

France

In France, the engineering degree is delivered by "Grandes Écoles d'Ingénieurs" upon completion of 3 years of Master'studies. The Écoles typically recruit undergraduate students from CPGE (2 or 3 years after the Baccalauréat), even though some of them include an integrated undergraduate cycle. Hence graduate engineers in France have studied a total of 5 years after the baccalaureate. To be able to deliver the Master of engineering degree, an École Master 's curriculum has to be validated by the Commission des titres d'ingénieur (Commission of the Engineering Title). It is important for the external observer to note that the system in France is extremely demanding in its entrance requirements (numerus clausus, using student rank in exams as the only criterion), despite being almost free of tuition fees, and much stricter in regards to the academic level of applying students than many other systems. The system focuses solely on selecting students by their engineering fundamental disciplines (mathematics, physics) abilities rather than their financial ability to finance large tuition fees, thus enabling a wider population access to higher education. In fact, being a graduate engineer in France is considered as being near/at the top of the social/professional ladder. The engineering profession grew from the military and the nobility in the 18th century. Engineers were educated at the École Polytechnique which was established in 1794 after the French Revolution. Polytechnique is one of the grandes écoles that have traditionally prepared technocrats to lead French government and industry, and has been one of the most privileged routes into the elite divisions of the civil service known as the "grands corps de l'État".

Inside a French company the title of Ingénieur refers to a rank in qualification and is not restricted. Therefore you can find sometimes Ingénieurs des Ventes (Sales Engineers), Ingénieur Marketing, Ingénieur Bancaire (Banking Engineer), Ingénieur Recherche & Développement (R&D Engineer), etc.

Germany

In Germany, the engineering degree is either delivered by Universities, and specialized Polytechnic Universities or Fachhochschulen.

Students receive first a baccalaureate degree (3–4 years of studies) followed by a Master's degree (1–2 years of studies) according to the principles of the Bologna declaration, though traditionally, the degree received after completing an engineering education was the German Diplom-Ingenieur - the German language has adopted the French noun. Using the title Ingenieur is legally regulated and limited to the according academic graduates.[5] The engineering doctorate degree is the Doktor-Ingenieur.

The quality of German engineering expertise has long been much vaunted, especially in the field of mechanical engineering. This is supported by the degree to which the various theories governing aerodynamics and structural mechanics are named after German scientists and engineers such as Ludwig Prandtl. German engineers have also been praised at being very practical (i.e. skilled at physical work related to their discipline), ascribed to the high quality of the apprenticeship courses many German engineers go through as part of their education.[6]

Italy

In Italy, the engineering degree and "engineer" title is delivered by Polytechnic Universities upon completion of 5 years of studies. Additional master degree (2 years) and doctorate programs (5 years) provide the title of "Dottore in ingegneria". Students that started studies in Polytechnic Universities before 2005 (when Italy adopted the Bologna declaration) need to complete a 5 years program to get the engineer title. In this case the master degree is obtained after 1 year of studies. Only people with an engineer title can be employed as "engineers". Still, some with competence and experience in an engineering field that do not have such a title, can still be employed to perform engineering tasks as "specialist", "assistant", "technologist" or "technician". But, only engineers can take legal responsibility and provide guarantee upon the work done by a team in their area of expertise. Sometimes a company working in this area, which temporarily does not have any employees with an engineer title must pay for an external service of an engineering audit to provide legal guarantee for their products or services.

The Netherlands

In the Netherlands there were two paths to study engineering. The HTS or higher vocational technical schools awarded a practically orientated degree and the title ing. after four years study. The universities offered a more academically oriented degree and the title ir. after five years study.

This changed in 2002 when the Netherlands switched to the Bachelor-Master system. This is a consequence of the Bologna process. In this accord 29 European countries agreed to harmonize their higher education system and create a European higher education area.

In this system the higher vocational technical schools award a bachelor degree and the title BEng or ing. after four years study. The universities with engineering programs award a bachelors degree and the title BSc after the third year. A university bachelor is expected to continue his education for one or two more years to earn his masters degree and the title MSc or ir. A vocational bachelor may be admitted to a university master degree program although often they are required to take additional courses. The higher vocational technical schools have started to develop master degree programs specifically for their students. This slightly awkward situation is expected to disappear due to the European harmonization process.

Poland

In Poland after 3,5 years of technical studies, one gets inżynier degree (inż.), which corresponds to B.Sc. or B.Eng. After that, one can continue studies, and after 2 years of post-graduate programme (supplementary studies) can obtain additional M.Sc. (or M.Eng.) degree, called magister, mgr, and that time one has two degrees: magister inżynier, mgr inż. (literally: master engineer). The mgr degree formerly (until full adaptation of Bologna process by university) could be obtained in integrated 5 years B.Sc-M.Sc. programme studies. Graduates having magister inżynier degree, can start 4 years doctorate studies (Ph.D.), which require opening of doctoral proceedings (przewód doktorski), carrying out own research, passing some exams (e.g. foreign language, philosophy, economy, leading subjects), writing and defense of doctoral thesis. Some Ph.D. students have also classes with undergraduate students (B.Sc., M.Sc.). Graduate of doctorate studies of technical university holds scientific degree of doktor nauk technicznych, dr inż., (literally: "doctor of technical sciences") or other e.g. Doktor Nauk Chemicznych (lit. "doctor of chemical sciences").

Russia

Moscow School of Mathematics and Navigation was a first Russian educational institution founded by Peter the Great in 1701. It provided Russians with technical education for the first time and much of its curriculum was devoted to producing sailors, engineers, cartographers and bombardiers to support Russian expanding navy and army. Then in 1810, the Saint Petersburg Military engineering-technical university becomes the first engineering higher learning institution in the Russian Empire, after addition of officers classes and application of five-year term of teaching. So initially more rigorisms of standards and teaching terms became the traditional historical feature of the Russian engineering education.[7] In Russia, the degree is специалист инженер (specialist is an engineer) or master's degree is an engineer, was traditional a degree after 5–6 years of stud, but now (when Russia adopted the Bologna declaration) appears a first degree "bachelor is an engineer" after 4 years of stud. Additional programs (3–4 years, after a traditional specialist-magister) provide the title of "Ph.D. is an engineer" ("Кандидат").

Romania

In Romania, the engineering degree and "engineer" title is delivered by Polytechnic Universities upon completion of 4 years of studies. Additional master degree (2 years) and doctorate programs (4–5 years) provide the title of "doctor inginer". Students that started studies in Polytechnic Universities before 2005 (when Romania adopted the Bologna declaration) need to complete a 5 years program to get the engineer title. In this case the master degree is obtained after 1 year of studies. Only people with an engineer title can be employed as "engineers". Still, some with competence and experience in an engineering field that do not have such a title, can still be employed to perform engineering tasks as "specialist", "assistant", "technologist" or "technician". But, only engineers can take legal responsibility and provide guarantee upon the work done by a team in their area of expertise. Sometimes a company working in this area, which temporarily does not have any employees with an engineer title must pay for an external service of an engineering audit to provide legal guarantee for their products or services.

Slovakia

In Slovakia, an engineer (inžinier) is considered to be a person holding master degree in technical sciences or economics. Several technical and economic universities offer 4-5-year master study in the fields of chemistry, agriculture, material technology, computer science, electrical and mechanical engineering, nuclear physics and technology or economics. A bachelor degree in similar field is prerequisite. Absolvents are awarded with the Ing. title always put in front of one's name; eventual ongoing doctoral study is offered both by universities and some institutes of the Slovak Academy of Sciences.

Spain

In Spain, the engineering degree is delivered by Universities in Engineering Schools, called "Escuelas de Ingeniería".

Students receive first a grado degree (4 years of studies) followed by a Master's degree (1–2 years of studies) according to the principles of the Bologna declaration, though traditionally, the degree received after completing an engineering education is the Spanish title of "Ingeniero". Using the title "Ingeniero" is legally regulated and limited to the according academic graduates.

Sweden

An institution offering engineering education is called "teknisk högskola" (institute of technology). These schools primarily offers five-year programmes resulting in the civilingenjör degree (not to be confused with the narrower English term "civil engineer"), internationally corresponding to a Master of Science in Engineering degree. These programmes typically offers a strong backing in the natural sciences, and the degree also opens up for doctoral (PHD) studies towards the degree "teknologie doktor". Civilingenjör programmes are offered in a broad range of fields: Engineering physics, Chemistry, Civil engineering, surveying, Industrial engineering and management, etc. There also are shorter three-year programmes called högskoleingengör (Bachelor of Science in Engineering) are typically more applied.

Turkey

In Turkey, engineering degrees range from a Bachelor's Degree in engineering (for a 4-year period), to a Master's Degree (adding 2 years), and to a Doctoral Degree (usually 4 – 5 years).

The title is limited by law to people with an engineering degree, and the use of the title by others (even persons with much more work experience) is illegal.

The Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects (UCTEA) was established in 1954 and separates engineers and architects to professional branches, with the condition of being within the framework of laws and regulations and in accordance with the present conditions, requirements and possibilities and to also establishes new Chambers for the group of engineers and architects, whose professional or working areas are similar or the same.

UCTEA is maintaining its activities with its 23 Chambers, 194 branches of its Chambers and 39 Provincial Coordination Councils. Approximately, graduates of 70 related academic disciplines in engineering, architecture and city planning are members of the Chambers of UCTEA.

United Kingdom

In the UK, like in United States and Canada, professional engineers are trained in universities but some can start in a technical apprenticeship (4–5 years) prior to enrolling in a university engineering degree. However unlike the US and Canada engineering is not a regulated licensed profession in the UK. People who do not attend university can enroll in the Engineering Council UK examination program administered by the City and Guilds of London Institute. All accredited engineering courses are assessed and approved by the Professional Institutions reflecting the subject covered; IMechE, IET, BCS, ICE, IStructE etc. Some of these institutions have previously invested heavily in engineering subjects and have become globally renowned.

The degree then counts in part to qualifying as a Chartered Engineer after a period (usually 4–8 years beyond the first degree) of structured professional practice, professional practice peer review and, if required, further exams to then become a corporate member of the relevant professional body. The term 'Chartered Engineer' is regulated by Royal Assent its use is restricted only to those registered; the awarding of this status is devolved to the professional institutions by the Engineering Council.

In the UK, most engineering courses take 3 years for an undergraduate bachelors (BEng) and a 4-year period for an Undergraduate Masters. Students who read a 4 years engineering course are awarded an Masters of Engineering (as opposed to Masters of Science in Engineering)[8] Some universities allow a student to opt out after one year before completion of the programme and receive a Diploma if a student has successfully completed second year or certificate if only successfully completed year one. Many courses include an option of a year in industry, which is usually a year before completion. Students who opt for this are awarded a Sandwich degree.[9]

BEng graduates may be registered as an "Incorporated Engineer" by the Engineering Council after a period of structured professional practice, professional practice peer review and, if required, further exams to then become a member of the relevant professional body. The term 'Incorporated Engineer' is regulated by Royal Assent its use is restricted only to those registered; the awarding of this status is devolved to the professional institutions by the Engineering Council.

In the UK, the term "engineer" is applied to non-degree vocations such as technologists, technicians, draftsmen, machinists, mechanics, plumbers, electricians, repair people, semi-skilled and even unskilled occupations.

North America

Canada

In engineering technology which are more applied degrees or diplomas. An engineering education in Canada is held in high esteem.

United States

Some of the first engineers designed irrigation canals, buildings, dams, and many other things to satisfy the needs of the people. Early engineers during war time designed weapons and war machines. Engineering education has changed since the times of the early engineers. "By the middle of the 20th century there were almost 1 million engineers in the United States."[11]

The first professional degree in engineering is a bachelor’s degree with few exceptions. This being said Interest in engineering has grown since 1999 the number of bachelor’s degrees issued has increased by 20%.[11]

Most bachelor's degree engineering programs require about two years of core courses. This is where a typical engineering student would learn mathematics (single- and multi-variable calculus and elementary differential equations), general chemistry, English composition, general and modern physics, computer science (typically programming), and introductory engineering in several areas that are required for a satisfactory engineering background and to be successful in their program of choice. Several courses in social sciences or humanities are often also required to be taken, but are commonly elective courses from a broad choice. Required common engineering courses typically include engineering drawing/drafting, materials engineering, statics and dynamics, strength of materials, electrical engineering, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and perhaps some systems or industrial engineering. The science and engineering courses include lecture and laboratory education, either in the same course(s) or in separate courses. However, some professors and educators believe that engineering programs should be changed to adopt more practical educating by focusing on skills that one would use in their future career field.[12]

By the end of the first year an engineering student should be looking to decide what specialization they would like to study. Specializations could include the following: civil (including structural), mechanical, electrical (often including computers) chemical, biological, industrial, aerospace, materials (including metallurgical), agricultural, and many other specializations. After choosing a specialization an engineering student will begin to take class that will build on the education that they have received and focus their future education toward their specialization or field of study. Towards the end of their undergraduate education, engineering students often undertake a design or other special project specific to their field.

After formal education, the engineer will often enter an internship or engineer in training status for approximately four years. After that time the engineer can decide whether or not to take a state licensing test to make them a Professional Engineer. After successful completion of that test, the Professional engineer can place the initials P.E. after their name signifying that they are now a Professional Engineer.[11] There are also graduate degree options for an engineer. Many engineers decide to complete a master’s degree in some field of engineering or business administration or get education in law, medicine, or other field.

Two types of doctorate are available also, the traditional Ph.D. or the doctor of engineering. The Ph.D. focuses on research and academic excellence, whereas the doctor of engineering focuses on practical engineering. The education requirements are the same for both degrees; however, the dissertation required is different. The Ph.D. requires the standard research problem, where the doctor of engineering focuses on a practical dissertation.

Even when the engineer has decided that he no longer wishes to pursue more formal schooling, he should keep his skills current. This can be done by continuing education courses. These could be on emerging technologies or just to advance in his profession.

See also

Notes

References

Further reading

External links

  • List of Engineering Colleges and Courses in India
  • ABET-accredited engineering education communities
  • Engineering Education in Canadian Universities
  • Evolution of Engineering Education in Canada
  • EE HomePage.com provides educational & career development resources for electrical engineers, educators and students
  • e-book library of classic texts on mechanical design and engineering.
  • Descriptions of Engineering College Majors
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