World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Eugene Garfield

Article Id: WHEBN0001283229
Reproduction Date:

Title: Eugene Garfield  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Herman Skolnik Award, Science Citation Index, Impact factor, Bibliometrician, Citation index
Collection: 1925 Births, American Jews, Bibliometrics, Living People
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Eugene Garfield

Eugene Garfield
Heritage Day awards, 2007
Born (1925-09-16) September 16, 1925
New York City, New York, United States
Education Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania (1961)
Occupation Linguistician and businessman
Known for One of the founders of bibliometrics and scientometrics
Science Citation Index
Institute for Scientific Information
Awards John Price Wetherill Medal, Richard J. Bolte Sr. Award

Eugene Garfield (born September 16, 1925) is an American linguist and businessman, one of the founders of bibliometrics and scientometrics.[1]


  • Biography 1
  • See also 2
  • References 3
  • Further reading 4
  • External links 5


Garfield was born in 1925 in New York City, and was raised in a Lithuanian[2]-Italian Jewish family.[3] He received a PhD in Structural Linguistics from the University of Pennsylvania in 1961. Dr. Garfield was the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), which was located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ISI now forms a major part of the science division of Thomson Reuters company. Garfield is responsible for many innovative bibliographic products, including Current Contents, the Science Citation Index (SCI), and other citation databases, the Journal Citation Reports, and Index Chemicus. He is the founding editor and publisher of The Scientist, a news magazine for life scientists. In 2003, the University of South Florida School of Information was honored to have him as lecturer for the Alice G. Smith Lecture. In 2007, he launched HistCite, a bibliometric analysis and visualization software package.

Following ideas inspired by Vannevar Bush's famous 1945 article "As We May Think", Garfield undertook the development of a comprehensive citation index showing the propagation of scientific thinking; he started the Institute for Scientific Information in 1955 (it was sold to Thomson Corporation in 1992[4]). According to Garfield, ″the citation index...may help a historian to measure the influence of an article—that is, its ′impact factor′.″[5] The creation of the Science Citation Index made it possible to calculate impact factor,[6] which supposedly measures the importance of scientific journals. It led to the unexpected discovery that a few journals like Nature and Science were core for all of hard science. The same pattern does not happen with the humanities or the social sciences.

His entrepreneurial flair in having turned what was, at least at the time, an obscure and specialist metric into a highly profitable business has been noted.[7]

Garfield's work led to the development of several Information Retrieval algorithms, like HITS and Pagerank. Both use the structured citation between websites through hyperlinks. The Association for Library and Information Science Education has a fund for doctoral research through an award named after Garfield.

See also


  1. ^ Garfield, Eugene, Blaise Cronin, and Helen Barsky Atkins.The Web of Knowledge: A Festschrift in Honor of Eugene Garfield. Medford, N.J.: Information Today, 2000.
  2. ^ "Deeds and Dreams of Eugene Garfield" (PDF).  
  3. ^ World Encyclopedia of Library and Information Services. Retrieved 14 October 2013. 
  4. ^ "Thomson Corporation acquired ISI".  
  5. ^ Garfield E (1955). "Citation indexes for science: A new dimension in documentation through association of ideas". Science 122: 108–11.  
  6. ^ Garfield E (2006). "The history and meaning of the journal impact factor". JAMA 295 (1): 90–3.  
  7. ^ "Editorial". J. Biol. Phys. Chem. 9 (4): 139–40. 2009. 

Further reading

  • Garfield, Eugene (July 15, 1955). "Citation indexes for science..." (PDF). The concept of the Science Citation Index is first articulated.  
  • Garfield, Eugene (September 16, 2005). "The Agony and the Ecstasy—The History and Meaning of the Journal Impact Factor" (PDF). International Congress on Peer Review and Biomedical Publication (Chicago). Retrieved 2011-05-09. 
  • "History of Citation Indexing" (Available online). Thomson Reuters. October 15, 2010. Retrieved 2011-05-09. Dr. Eugene Garfield, founder and now Chairman Emeritus of ISI® (now Thomson Reuters), was deeply involved in the research relating to machine generated indexes in the mid-1950s and early 1960s 
  • "Fifty Years of Citation Indexing and Analysis" (Available online). Thomson Reuters. October 6, 2010. Fifty years ago, on July 15, 1955, Eugene Garfield, Ph.D published his groundbreaking paper on citation indexing, "Citation Indexes for Science: A New Dimension in Documentation through Association of Ideas." This innovative paper envisioned information tools that allow researchers to expedite their research process, evaluate the impact of their work, spot scientific trends, and trace the history of modern scientific thoughts. 

External links

  • Eugene Garfield's home page
  • Works by or about Eugene Garfield in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
  • Eugene Garfield tells his life story (video)
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.