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François Hollande

François Hollande
President of France
Assumed office
15 May 2012
Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault
Manuel Valls
Preceded by Nicolas Sarkozy
Co-Prince of Andorra
Assumed office
15 May 2012
Serving with Joan Enric Vives Sicília
Prime Minister Antoni Martí
Gilbert Saboya Sunyé (Acting)
Antoni Martí
Representative Sylvie Hubac
Thierry Lataste
Preceded by Nicolas Sarkozy
President of the Corrèze General Council
In office
20 March 2008 – 15 May 2012
Preceded by Jean-Pierre Dupont
Succeeded by Gérard Bonnet
First Secretary of the Socialist Party
In office
27 November 1997 – 27 November 2008
Preceded by Lionel Jospin
Succeeded by Martine Aubry
Mayor of Tulle
In office
17 March 2001 – 17 March 2008
Preceded by Raymond-Max Aubert
Succeeded by Bernard Combes
Member of the National Assembly
for Corrèze's 1st Constituency
In office
12 June 1997 – 15 May 2012
Preceded by Raymond-Max Aubert
Succeeded by Sophie Dessus
In office
12 June 1988 – 17 May 1993
Preceded by Proportional representation
Succeeded by Raymond-Max Aubert
Personal details
Born François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande
(1954-08-12) 12 August 1954
Rouen, France
Political party Socialist Party
Domestic partner Ségolène Royal (1978–2007)
Valérie Trierweiler (2007–14)
Children Thomas
Clémence
Julien
Flora
Residence Élysée Palace
Alma mater Pantheon-Assas University
HEC Paris
Sciences Po
École nationale d'administration
Signature
Website Official Facebook

François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande (French pronunciation: ​; born 12 August 1954) is a French politician. He is the current President of France, as well as Co-prince of Andorra, since 2012.

Hollande was previously the First Secretary of the French Socialist Party from 1997 to 2008, the Mayor of Tulle from 2001 to 2008 and the President of the Corrèze General Council from 2008 to 2012. He also served in the National Assembly twice as a representative of Corrèze from 1988 to 1993 and 1997 to 2012.

Contents

  • Early life and education 1
  • Early political career 2
    • First Secretary of the Socialist Party (1997–2008) 2.1
    • 2012 presidential campaign 2.2
  • President of France (2012–present) 3
    • Budget 3.1
    • LGBT rights 3.2
    • Labour reform 3.3
    • Pension reform 3.4
    • Foreign affairs 3.5
      • Intervention in Mali 3.5.1
    • Co-Prince of Andorra 3.6
    • Approval ratings 3.7
  • Personal life 4
  • Honours and decorations 5
    • National honours 5.1
    • Foreign honours 5.2
    • Key to the City 5.3
  • Works 6
  • References 7
  • Further reading 8
    • In French 8.1
  • External links 9

Early life and education

Hollande was born in ear, nose, and throat doctor who "had once run on a far right ticket in local politics."[1][2][3][4][5] Hollande was raised Catholic, but became an agnostic in later life,[6] and now considers himself as an atheist[7] (In December 2011, Hollande told the French Christian magazine La Vie that he respects all religious practices but has none of his own.[8]) The family moved to Neuilly-sur-Seine, a highly exclusive suburb of Paris, when Hollande was 13.[9]

He attended Saint-Jean-Baptiste-de-la-Salle boarding school, a private Catholic school in Rouen, the Lycée Pasteur, in Neuilly-sur-Seine, then graduated with a bachelor degree in law from Panthéon-Assas University. Then he studied at HEC Paris where he graduated in 1975, before attending the Institut d'études politiques de Paris (Paris Institute of Political Studies), and the École nationale d'administration. He graduated from ENA in 1980[10][11] and chose to enter the prestigious Cour des comptes. He lived in the United States in the summer of 1974 while he was a university student.[12] Immediately after graduating, he was employed as a councillor in the Court of Audit.

Early political career

Five years after volunteering as a student to work for François Mitterrand's ultimately unsuccessful campaign in the 1974 presidential election, Hollande joined the Socialist Party. He was quickly spotted by Jacques Attali, a senior adviser to Mitterrand, who arranged for Hollande to stand for election to the French National Assembly in 1981 in Corrèze against future President Jacques Chirac, who was then the Leader of the Rally for the Republic, a Neo-Gaullist party. Hollande lost to Chirac in the first round.

He went on to become a special advisor to newly elected President Mitterrand, before serving as a staffer for Max Gallo, the government's spokesman. After becoming a municipal councillor for Ussel in 1983, he contested Corrèze for a second time in 1988, this time being elected to the National Assembly. Hollande lost his bid for re-election to the National Assembly in the so-called "blue wave" of the 1993 election, described as such due to the number of seats gained by the Right at the expense of the Socialist Party.

First Secretary of the Socialist Party (1997–2008)

François Hollande in 2004
Hollande with his former partner Ségolène Royal, at a rally for the 2007 elections

As the end of Mitterrand's term in office approached, the Socialist Party was torn by a struggle of internal factions, each seeking to influence the direction of the party. Hollande pleaded for reconciliation and for the party to unite behind Jacques Delors, the president of the European Commission, but Delors renounced his ambitions to run for the French presidency in 1995, leading to Lionel Jospin's resuming his earlier position as the leader of the party. Jospin selected Hollande to become the official party spokesman, and Hollande went on to contest Corrèze once again in 1997, successfully returning to the National Assembly.

That same year, Jospin became the prime minister of France, and Hollande won the election for his successor as first secretary of the French Socialist Party, a position he would hold for eleven years. Because of the very strong position of the Socialist Party within the French government during this period, Hollande's position led some to refer to him the "vice prime minister". Hollande would go on to be elected mayor of Tulle in 2001, an office he would hold for the next seven years.

The immediate resignation of Jospin from politics following his shock defeat by far-right candidate Jean-Marie Le Pen in the first round of the 2002 presidential election forced Hollande to become the public face of the party for the 2002 legislative election but, although he managed to limit defeats and was re-elected in his own constituency, the Socialists lost nationally. In order to prepare for the 2003 party congress in Dijon, he obtained the support of many notable personalities of the party and was re-elected first secretary against opposition from left-wing factions.

After the triumph of the Left in the 2004 regional elections, Hollande was cited as a potential presidential candidate, but the Socialists were divided on the European Constitution, and Hollande's support for the ill-fated "Yes" position in the French referendum on the European constitution caused friction within the party. Although Hollande was re-elected as first secretary at the Le Mans Congress in 2005, his authority over the party began to decline from this point onwards. Eventually his domestic partner, Ségolène Royal, was chosen to represent the Socialist Party in the 2007 presidential election, where she would lose to Nicolas Sarkozy.

Hollande was widely blamed for the poor performances of the Socialist Party in the 2007 elections, and he announced that he would not seek another term as first secretary. Hollande publicly declared his support for Bertrand Delanoë, the mayor of Paris, although it was Martine Aubry who would go on to win the race to succeed him in 2008.

Following his resignation as first secretary, Hollande was immediately elected to replace Jean-Pierre Dupont as the president of the General Council of Corrèze in April 2008, a position he holds to this day. In 2008 he supported the creation of the first European Prize for Local History (Étienne Baluze Prize), founded by the "Société des amis du musée du cloître" of Tulle, on the suggestion of the French historian Jean Boutier. François Hollande awarded the first prize on 29 February 2008 to the Italian historian Beatrice Palmero in the General Council of Corrèze.

2012 presidential campaign

Styles of
François Hollande
Reference style Son Excellence
(His Excellency)
Spoken style Monsieur le Président de la République
Styles of
François Hollande
Reference style Excel·lentíssim Senyor
(The Most Excellent)
Spoken style Excel·lentíssim Senyor

Following his re-election as president of the General Council of Corrèze in March 2011, Hollande announced that he would be a candidate in the upcoming primary election to select the Socialist and Radical Left Party presidential nominee.[13] The primary marked the first time that both parties had held an open primary to select a joint nominee at the same time. He initially trailed the front-runner, former finance minister and International Monetary Fund managing director Dominique Strauss-Kahn.

Following Strauss-Kahn's arrest on suspicion of sexual assault in New York City in May 2011, Hollande began to lead the opinion polls. His position as front-runner was established just as Strauss-Kahn declared that he would no longer be seeking the nomination. After a series of televised debates throughout September, Hollande topped the ballot in the first round held on 9 October with 39% of the vote, not gaining the 50% required to avoid a second ballot, which he would contest against Martine Aubry, who had come second with 30% of the vote.

The second ballot took place on 16 October 2011. Hollande won with 56% of the vote to Aubry's 43% and thus became the official Socialist and Radical Left Party candidate for the 2012 presidential election.[14] After the primary results, he immediately gained the pledged support of the other contenders for the party's nomination, including Aubry, Arnaud Montebourg, Manuel Valls and 2007 candidate Ségolène Royal.[15]

Hollande's presidential campaign was managed by Pierre Moscovici and Stéphane Le Foll, a member of Parliament and Member of the European Parliament respectively.[16] Hollande launched his campaign officially with a rally and major speech at Le Bourget on 22 January 2012 in front of 25,000 people.[17][18] The main themes of his speech were equality and the regulation of finance, both of which he promised to make a key part of his campaign.[18]

On 26 January, he outlined a full list of policies in a manifesto containing 60 propositions, including the separation of retail activities from riskier investment-banking businesses; raising taxes on big corporations, banks and the wealthy; creating 60,000 teaching jobs; bringing the official retirement age back down to 60 from 62; creating subsidised jobs in areas of high unemployment for the young; promoting more industry in France by creating a public investment bank; granting marriage and adoption rights to same-sex couples; and pulling French troops out of Afghanistan in 2012.[19][20] On 9 February, he detailed his policies specifically relating to education in a major speech in Orléans.[21]

On 15 February, incumbent president Nicolas Sarkozy announced that he would run for a second and final term, strongly criticising Hollande's proposals and claiming that he would bring about "economic disaster within two days of taking office" if he won.[22]

Hollande visited Berlin, Germany, in December 2011 for the Social Democrats Federal Party Congress, at which he met Sigmar Gabriel, Peer Steinbrück, Frank-Walter Steinmeier and Martin Schulz;[23][24] he also travelled to Belgium before the United Kingdom in February 2012, where he met with Opposition Leader Ed Miliband; and finally Tunisia in May 2012.[25][26]

Opinion polls showed a tight race between the two men in the first round of voting, with most polls showing Hollande comfortably ahead of Sarkozy in a hypothetical second round run-off.[27]

The first round of the presidential election was held on 22 April. François Hollande came in first place with 28.63% of the vote, and faced Nicolas Sarkozy in the second round run-off.[28] In the second round of voting on 6 May 2012, François Hollande was elected President of the French Republic with 51.7% of the vote.[29]

President of France (2012–present)

Hollande (right) and outgoing President Nicolas Sarkozy at Élysée Palace on inauguration day, 15 May 2012
Hollande during a meeting in Carcassonne on May 2015

François Hollande was elected President of France on 6 May 2012. He was inaugurated on 15 May, and shortly afterwards appointed Jean-Marc Ayrault to be his Prime Minister. He also appointed Benoît Puga to be the military's chief of staff, Pierre-René Lemas as his general secretary and Pierre Besnard as his Head of Cabinet.[30] On his first official visit to a foreign country in his capacity as president of France, the airplane transporting him was hit by lightning.[31] The plane returned safely to Paris where he took another flight to Germany. The first measures he took were to lower the income of the president, the prime minister, and other members of the government by 30%, and to make them sign a "code of ethics".[32]

Budget

Hollande's economic policies are wide-ranging, including supporting the creation of a European credit rating agency, the separation of lending and investment in banks, reducing the share of electricity generated by nuclear power in France from 75 to 50% in favour of renewable energy sources, merging income tax and the General Social Contribution (CSG), creating an additional 45% for additional income of 150,000 euros, capping tax loopholes at a maximum of €10,000 per year, and questioning the relief solidarity tax on wealth (ISF, Impôt de Solidarité sur la Fortune) measure that should bring €29 billion in additional revenue. Hollande has also signalled his intent to implement a 75% income tax rate on revenue earned above 1,000,000 euros per year, to generate the provision of development funds for deprived suburbs, and to return to a deficit of zero percent of GDP by 2017.[33][34] The tax plan has proven controversial, with courts ruling it unconstitutional in 2012, only to then take the opposite position on a redrafted version in 2013.[35][36]

Hollande has also announced several reforms to education, pledging to recruit 60,000 new teachers, to create a study allowance and means-tested training, and to set up a mutually beneficial contract that would allow a generation of experienced employees and craftsmen to be the guardians and teachers of younger newly hired employees, thereby creating a total of 150,000 subsidized jobs. This has been complemented by the promise of aid to SMEs, with the creation of a public bank investment-oriented SME's, and a reduction of the corporate tax rate to 30% for medium corporations and 15% for small.

Hollande's government has announced plans to construct 500,000 public homes per year, including 150,000 social houses, funded by a doubling of the ceiling of the A passbook, the region making available its local government land within five years. In accordance with long-standing Socialist Party policy, Hollande has announced that the retirement age will revert to 60, for those who have contributed for more than 41 years.

LGBT rights

Hollande has also announced his personal support for same-sex marriage and adoption for LGBT couples, and outlined plans to pursue the issue in early 2013.[37] In July 2012, Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault announced that "In the first half of 2013, the right to marriage and adoption will be open to all couples, without discrimination [...]", confirming this election promise by Hollande.[38][39]

The bill to legalize same-sex marriage, known as Bill no. 344, was introduced to the National Assembly of France on 7 November 2012. On 12 February 2013, the National Assembly approved the bill in a 329–229 vote.[40] The Right-wing opposed the bill. The Senate approved the full bill with a 171–165 majority on 12 April with minor amendments. On 23 April, the National Assembly approved the amended bill, in a 331–225 vote, and following approval of the law by the Constitutional Council of France, it was signed into law by President François Hollande on 18 May 2013, with the first same-sex weddings under the law taking place eleven days later.[41]

Labour reform

As President, Hollande pursued labor reform to make France more competitive internationally. Legislation was introduced in late 2012 and after much debate passed the French lower and upper house in May 2013. The bill includes measures such as making it easier for workers to change jobs and for companies to fire employees. One of the main measures of the bill allows companies to temporarily cut workers' salaries or hours during times of economic difficulty. This measure takes its inspiration from Germany, where furloughs have been credited with allowing companies to weather difficult times without resorting to massive layoffs. Another measure that aims to simplify the firing process. Layoffs in France are often challenged in courts and the cases can take years to resolve. Many companies cite the threat of lengthy court action – even more than any financial cost – as the most difficult part of doing business in France. The law shortens the time that employees have to contest a layoff and also lays out a scheme for severance pay. The government hopes this will help employees and companies reach agreement faster in contentious layoffs. Another key measure introduced are credits for training that follow employees throughout their career, regardless of where they work, and the right to take a leave of absence to work at another company. The law will also require all companies to offer and partially pay for supplemental health insurance. Lastly, the law also reforms unemployment insurance, so that someone out of work doesn't risk foregoing significant benefits when taking a job that might pay less than previous work or end up only being temporary. Under the new law, workers will be able to essentially put benefits on hold when they take temporary work, instead of seeing their benefits recalculated each time.[42]

Pension reform

As President, Hollande pursued reform to the vast and expensive pension system in France. The process proved to be very contentious, with members of Parliament, Labor Unions, and general public all opposed. Mass protests and demonstrations occurred throughout Paris. Despite all of the opposition, the French Parliament did pass a reform in December 2013 aimed at plugging a pension deficit expected to reach 20.7 billion euros ($28.4 billion) by 2020 if nothing is done. Rather than raising the manadatory retirement that many economists had advised, Hollande pursued increasing contributions and leaving the retirement age untouched. The reform had a rough ride in parliament, being rejected twice by the Senate, where Hollande's Socialist Party has a slim majority, before it won sufficient backing in a final vote before the lower house of parliament. French private sector workers will see the size and duration of their pension contributions increase only modestly under the reform while their retirement benefits are largely untouched.[43] Several scholars and economists argue the reform did not go far enough.

Foreign affairs

Leaders of Belarus, Russia, Germany, France, and Ukraine at the summit in Minsk, 11–12 February 2015

As President, Hollande promised an early withdrawal of French combat troops present in Afghanistan in 2012.[44][45] He also pledged to conclude a new contract of Franco-German partnership, advocating the adoption of a Directive on the protection of public services. Hollande has proposed "an acceleration of the establishment of a Franco-German civic service, the creation of a Franco-German research office, the creation of a Franco-German industrial fund to finance common competitiveness clusters, and the establishment of a common military headquarters".[46] As well as this, Hollande has expressed a wish to "combine the positions of the presidents of the European Commission and of the European Council (currently held by José Manuel Barroso and Herman Van Rompuy respectively) into a single office...and that it should be directly chosen" by the members of the European Parliament.[46] Hollande made a state visit to the United States in February 2014; a state dinner was given in his honor by U.S. President Barack Obama.[47][48][49] On 27 February 2014, Hollande was a special guest of honor in Abuja, received by Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan in celebration of Nigeria's amalgamation in 1914, a 100-year anniversary.[50] In September 2015, Hollande warned former Eastern Bloc countries against rejecting the EU mandatory migrant quotas, saying: "Those who don't share our values, those who don't even want to respect those principles, need to start asking themselves questions about their place in the European Union".[51]

Intervention in Mali

Hollande reviews troops during the 2013 Bastille Day military parade

On 11 January 2013, Hollande authorised the execution of Operation Serval, which aimed to curtail the activities of Islamist extremists in the north of Mali.[44] The intervention was popularly supported in Mali, as Hollande promised that his government would do all it could to "rebuild Mali".[52] During his one-day visit to Bamako, Mali's capital, on 2 February 2013, he said that it was "the most important day in [his] political life".[53] In 2014 Hollande took some of these troops out of Mali and spread them over the rest of the Sahel under Operation Barkhane, in an effort to curb jihadists militants.[54]

Co-Prince of Andorra

The President of the French Republic is one of the two joint heads of state of the Principality of Andorra. Hollande hosted a visit from Antoni Martí, head of the government, and Vicenç Mateu Zamora, leader of the parliament.[55][56]

Approval ratings

An IFOP poll released in April 2014 showed that Hollande’s approval rating had dropped five points since the previous month of March to 18%, dipping below his earlier low of 20% in February during the same year.[57] In November 2014, his approval rating reached a new low of 12%, according to a YouGov poll.[58] Following the Charlie Hebdo shooting in January 2015, however, approval for Hollande increased dramatically, reaching 40% according to an IFOP poll two weeks after the attack,[59] though an Ipsos-Le Point survey in early February showed his rating declining back to 30%.[60]

Personal life

For over thirty years, his partner was fellow Socialist politician Ségolène Royal, with whom he has four children: Thomas (1984), Clémence (1985), Julien (1987) and Flora (1992). In June 2007, just a month after Royal's defeat in the French presidential election of 2007, the couple announced that they were separating.[61]

A few months after his split from Ségolène Royal was announced, a French website published details of a relationship between Hollande and French journalist Valérie Trierweiler. In November 2007, Trierweiler confirmed and openly discussed her relationship with Hollande in an interview with the French weekly Télé 7 Jours. She remained a reporter for the magazine Paris Match, but ceased work on political stories. Trierweiler moved into the Élysée Palace with Hollande when he became president and started to accompany him on official travel.[62]

On 25 January 2014, Hollande officially announced his separation from Valérie Trierweiler[63] after the tabloid magazine Closer revealed his affair with actress Julie Gayet.[64] In September 2014 Trierweiler published a book about her time with Hollande titled Merci pour ce moment (Thank You for This Moment). The memoir claimed the president presented himself as disliking the rich, but in reality disliked the poor. The claim brought an angry reaction and rejection from Hollande, who said he had spent his life dedicated to the under-privileged.[65]

Honours and decorations

National honours

Ribbon bar Honour Date & Comment
Grand Master & Grand Cross of the National Order of the Legion of Honour 15 May 2012 – automatic upon taking presidential office
Grand Master & Grand Cross of the National Order of Merit 15 May 2012 – automatic upon taking presidential office

Foreign honours

Ribbon bar Country Honour Date
Poland Knight of the Order of the White Eagle 16 November 2012.[66][67]
Italy Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic 21 November 2012.[68]
Monaco Grand Cross of the Order of Saint-Charles 14 November 2013.[69]
Saudi Arabia Chain of the Order of Abdulaziz Al Saud 30 December 2013.[70]
Netherlands Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion 20 January 2014.[71]
United Kingdom Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath 5 June 2014.[72]
Sweden Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim 2 December 2014.[73]

Key to the City

Manila: Key to the City of Manila (26 February 2015).

Works

Hollande has had a number of books and academic works published, including:

  • L'Heure des choix. Pour une économie politique (The hour of choices. For a political economy), with Pierre Moscovici, 1991. ISBN 2-7381-0146-1
  • L'Idée socialiste aujourd'hui (The Socialist Idea Today), Omnibus, 2001. ISBN 978-2-259-19584-3
  • Devoirs de vérité (Duties of truth), interviews with Edwy Plenel, éd. Stock, 2007. ISBN 978-2-234-05934-4
  • Droit d'inventaires (Rights of inventory), interviews with Pierre Favier, Le Seuil, 2009. ISBN 978-2-02-097913-9
  • Le rêve français (The French Dream), Privat, August 2011. ISBN 978-2-7089-4441-1
  • Un destin pour la France (A Destiny for France), Fayard, January 2012. ISBN 978-2-213-66283-1
  • Changer de destin (Changing destiny), Robert Laffont, February 2012. ISBN 978-2-221-13117-6

References

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^ ("En décembre dernier, François Hollande confiait à La Vie : 'Je n'ai aucune pratique religieuse. Mais je respecte toutes les confessions. La mienne est de ne pas en avoir.'")
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^ a b
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^
  30. ^ Le cabinet du Président de la République elysee.fr 15 May 2012
  31. ^
  32. ^
  33. ^
  34. ^
  35. ^
  36. ^
  37. ^
  38. ^ [1]
  39. ^
  40. ^ (French) Loi sur le mariage pour tous : les députés adoptent l'article 1. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^ a b
  45. ^
  46. ^ a b
  47. ^
  48. ^
  49. ^
  50. ^
  51. ^
  52. ^
  53. ^
  54. ^
  55. ^ "François Hollande, co-prince d'Andorre, reçoit des responsables de la principauté", 20 minutes, 26 July 2012
  56. ^ "Entretien du Président de la République, M. François Hollande avec MM. Marti et Mateu, Chef du Gouvernement et Syndic Général de la Principauté d’Andorre", French embassy to Andorra, 30 July 2012
  57. ^ http://www.ifop.fr/media/poll/2601-1-study_file.pdf
  58. ^
  59. ^
  60. ^
  61. ^
  62. ^ The women in Francois Hollande's life BBC News 10 January 2014
  63. ^
  64. ^
  65. ^
  66. ^ Orders exchange between Polish and French Presidents (photo) – prezydent.pl
  67. ^ Orders exchange between Polish and French Presidents (photo) – Knight Grand Cross Order of Merit of the Italian Republic elysee.fr
  68. ^ (Italian) Italian Presidency website, Exchange of decorations between President Napolitano and President Hollande
  69. ^ Sovereign Ordonnance n° 4575 of 14 november 2013
  70. ^ (French) BFMTV, [2]
  71. ^ (Dutch) Telegraaf, Koning krijgt grootkruis van Legioen van Eer
  72. ^ (French) BFMTV, Débarquement: la visite millimétrée de la reine Elizabeth II en France
  73. ^ [3]

Further reading

  • Chafer, Tony. "Hollande and Africa Policy." Modern & Contemporary France (2014) 22#4 pp: 513-531.
  • Clift, Ben, and Raymond Kuhn. "The Hollande Presidency, 2012–14." Modern & Contemporary France (2014) 22#4 pp: 425-434; Online free
  • Goodliffe, Gabriel, and Riccardo Brizzi. France after 2012 (2015).
  • Kuhn, Raymond. "Mister Unpopular: François Hollande and the Exercise of Presidential Leadership, 2012–14," Modern & Contemporary France (2014) 22#4 pp: 435-457
  • Merle, Patrick, and Dennis Patterson. "The French parliamentary and presidential elections of 2012." Electoral Studies 34 (2014): 303-309.
  • Wall, Irwin. France Votes: The Election of François Hollande (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.)
  • Weinstein, Kenneth R. "Hollande the hawk?." World Affairs 177.1 (2014): 87-96.

In French

External links

  • (French) President of France
  • (French) Official page at the French National Assembly
  • (French) Official website
  • François Hollande, 11 années à la tête du Parti Socialiste, Politique.net
  • Michael C. Behrent (Sister Republic),"Socialism of Adjustment: François Hollande"
  • French Presidential election 2012 dossier on RFI English
  • French Parliamentary elections 2012 dossier on RFI English
  • Statement of President Hollande to the Sixty-seventh session of the United Nations General Assembly, 25 September 2012 (dubbed in English; official United Nations video)
  • GuardianCollected Articles at the
Political offices
Preceded by
Raymond-Max Aubert
Mayor of Tulle
2001–2008
Succeeded by
Bernard Combes
Preceded by
Jean-Pierre Dupont
President of the Corrèze General Council
2008–2012
Succeeded by
Gérard Bonnet
Preceded by
Nicolas Sarkozy
President of France
2012–present
Incumbent
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Nicolas Sarkozy
Co-Prince of Andorra
2012–present
Served alongside: Joan Enric Vives Sicília
Incumbent
Party political offices
Preceded by
Lionel Jospin
First Secretary of the Socialist Party
1997–2008
Succeeded by
Martine Aubry
Preceded by
Ségolène Royal
Socialist Party nominee for President of France
2012
Most recent
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Nicolas Sarkozy
Honorary Canon of the Papal basilicas of
St. John Lateran and St. Peter's

2012–present
Incumbent
Order of precedence
First Order of Precedence of France
as President
Succeeded by
Manuel Valls
as Prime Minister


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