World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Friedrich Müller (linguist)

Article Id: WHEBN0004070099
Reproduction Date:

Title: Friedrich Müller (linguist)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Afroasiatic languages, Ernst Haeckel, Friedrich Müller, Austrian linguists, Niger–Congo languages
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Friedrich Müller (linguist)

Friedrich Müller (born 6 March 1834, Jemnik, Austrian Empire (now Jemnice, Czech Republic); died 25 May 1898, Vienna) was an Austrian linguist and ethnologist who originated the term Hamito-Semitic languages for what are now called the Afro-Asiatic languages.

Contents

  • Biography 1
  • Theories 2
  • Works 3
  • Notes 4
  • References 5

Biography

He studied at the University of Göttingen. His studies were completed at the University of Vienna (1853-1857), where he was librarian from 1858 to 1866, and then became extraordinary and then ordinary (1869) professor of comparative philology and Sanskrit. He was a member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, and was one of the highest authorities on comparative philology and ethnology and the relations of the two sciences, being so regarded in particular by Theodor Benfey.

Theories

According to the Müller's classification, followed by Robert Needham Cust, the main subgroups of the Hamito-Semitic languages are: (1) Semitic; (2) Hamitic; (3) Nuba-Fula; (4) Nigerian or Negro languages; (5) Bantu; and (6) Hottentot-Bushman.[1]

The prominent German zoologist Ernst Haeckel mentioned Müller when he formulated his own racialist theory about higher and lower races:

The Caucasian, or Mediterranean man (Homo Mediterraneus), has from time immemorial been placed at the head of all the races of men, as the most highly developed and perfect. It is generally called the Caucasian race, but as, among all the varieties of the species, the Caucasian branch is the least important, we prefer the much more suitable appellation proposed by Friedrich Müller, namely, that of Mediterranese. For the most important varieties of this species, which are moreover the most eminent actors in what is called “Universal History,” first rose to a flourishing condition on the shores of the Mediterranean.… This species alone (with the exception of the Mongolian) has had an actual history; it alone has attained to that degree of civilization which seems to raise men above the rest of nature.[2]

Works

Besides contributing largely on comparative philology and etnnology to the Mitteilungen der anthropologischen Gesellschaft and the Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes, and editing these periodicals for a time, Müller wrote:

  • Reise der österreichischen Fregatte Novara, linguistic and the ethnological parts (1867–73)
  • Allgemeine Ethnographie (1873)
  • Grundriss der Sprachwissenschaft (1876–87) Facsimile reprint, 2004 (ISBN 348712047X)

Notes

  1. ^ http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bcp/Muss-Arnolt/part6a.htm
  2. ^ Ernst Haeckel, The History of Creation, (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1914), II, 429.

References

  •  
  •  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.