World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Gardner–Salinas braille codes

Article Id: WHEBN0004595591
Reproduction Date:

Title: Gardner–Salinas braille codes  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Braille, Korean Braille, Greek Braille, Braille pattern dots-14, Braille music
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Gardner–Salinas braille codes

The Gardner–Salinas braille codes are a method of encoding mathematical and scientific notation linearly using braille cells for tactile reading by the visually impaired. The most common form of Gardner–Salinas braille is the 8-cell variety, commonly called GS8. There is also a corresponding 6-cell form called GS6.[1]

The codes were developed as a replacement for Nemeth Braille by John Gardner, a physicist at Oregon State University, and Norberto Salinas, an Argentinian mathematician.

The Gardner–Salinas braille codes are an example of a compact human-readable markup language. The syntax is based on the LaTeX system for scientific typesetting.

Table of Gardner–Salinas 8-dot (GS8) braille

The set of lower-case letters, the period, comma, semicolon, colon, exclamation mark, apostrophe, and opening and closing double quotes are the same as in Grade-2 English Braille.[1]

Digits

Symbol 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Braille ⠬ (braille pattern dots-346) ⠡ (braille pattern dots-16) ⠣ (braille pattern dots-126) ⠩ (braille pattern dots-146) ⠹ (braille pattern dots-1456) ⠱ (braille pattern dots-156) ⠫ (braille pattern dots-1246) ⠻ (braille pattern dots-12456) ⠳ (braille pattern dots-1256) ⠪ (braille pattern dots-246)

Apart from 0, this is the same as the Antoine notation used in French and Luxembourgish Braille.

Upper-case letters

GS8 upper-case letters are indicated by the same cell as standard English braille (and GS8) lower-case letters, with dot #7 added.

Symbol A B C D E F G H I J K L M
Braille ⡁ (braille pattern dots-17) ⡃ (braille pattern dots-127) ⡉ (braille pattern dots-147) ⡙ (braille pattern dots-1457) ⡑ (braille pattern dots-157) ⡋ (braille pattern dots-1247) ⡛ (braille pattern dots-12457) ⡓ (braille pattern dots-1257) ⡊ (braille pattern dots-247) ⡚ (braille pattern dots-2457) ⡅ (braille pattern dots-137) ⡇ (braille pattern dots-1237) ⡍ (braille pattern dots-1347)
Symbol N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Braille ⡝ (braille pattern dots-13457) ⡕ (braille pattern dots-1357) ⡏ (braille pattern dots-12347) ⡟ (braille pattern dots-123457) ⡗ (braille pattern dots-12357) ⡎ (braille pattern dots-2347) ⡞ (braille pattern dots-23457) ⡥ (braille pattern dots-1367) ⡧ (braille pattern dots-12367) ⡺ (braille pattern dots-24567) ⡭ (braille pattern dots-13467) ⡽ (braille pattern dots-134567) ⡵ (braille pattern dots-13567)

Compare Luxembourgish Braille.

Greek letters

Dot 8 is added to the letter forms of International Greek Braille to derive Greek letters:

Symbol α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ
Braille ⢁ (braille pattern dots-18) ⢃ (braille pattern dots-128) ⢛ (braille pattern dots-12458) ⢙ (braille pattern dots-1458) ⢑ (braille pattern dots-158) ⢵ (braille pattern dots-13568) ⢱ (braille pattern dots-1568) ⢹ (braille pattern dots-14568) ⢊ (braille pattern dots-248) ⢅ (braille pattern dots-138) ⢇ (braille pattern dots-1238) ⢍ (braille pattern dots-1348)
Symbol ν ξ ο π ρ σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Braille ⢝ (braille pattern dots-13458) ⢭ (braille pattern dots-13468) ⢕ (braille pattern dots-1358) ⢏ (braille pattern dots-12348) ⢗ (braille pattern dots-12358) ⢎ (braille pattern dots-2348) ⢞ (braille pattern dots-23458) ⢥ (braille pattern dots-1368) ⢋ (braille pattern dots-1248) ⢯ (braille pattern dots-123468) ⢽ (braille pattern dots-134568) ⢺ (braille pattern dots-24568)
Symbol Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π Σ Υ Φ Ψ Ω
Braille ⣛ (braille pattern dots-124578) ⣙ (braille pattern dots-14578) ⣹ (braille pattern dots-145678) ⣇ (braille pattern dots-12378) ⣭ (braille pattern dots-134678) ⣏ (braille pattern dots-123478) ⣎ (braille pattern dots-23478) ⣥ (braille pattern dots-13678) ⣋ (braille pattern dots-12478) ⣽ (braille pattern dots-1345678) ⣺ (braille pattern dots-245678)

Characters differing from English Braille

Symbol Parentheses Brackets single quote  
open close open close open close ?
Braille ⢆ (braille pattern dots-238) ⡘ (braille pattern dots-457) ⣦ (braille pattern dots-23678) ⣴ (braille pattern dots-35678) ⣄ (braille pattern dots-378) ⠄ (braille pattern dots-3) ⠶ (braille pattern dots-2356)

ASCII symbols and mathematical operators

Symbol " $ & @ \ ^ _ ` { } ~
Braille ⣒ (braille pattern dots-2578) ⡼ (braille pattern dots-34567) ⠯ (braille pattern dots-12346) ⢌ (braille pattern dots-348) ⣡ (braille pattern dots-1678) ⡐ (braille pattern dots-57) ⢂ (braille pattern dots-28) ⣄ (braille pattern dots-378) ⣷ (braille pattern dots-1235678) ⣾ (braille pattern dots-2345678) ⣠ (braille pattern dots-678)
Symbol # % * + / < = > × · ÷
Braille ⠼ (braille pattern dots-3456) ⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345) ⢜ (braille pattern dots-3458) ⡒ (braille pattern dots-257) ⣌ (braille pattern dots-3478) ⢔ (braille pattern dots-358) ⣶ (braille pattern dots-235678) ⡢ (braille pattern dots-267) ⣂ (braille pattern dots-278) ⢒ (braille pattern dots-258) ⣐ (braille pattern dots-578)

Text symbols

Symbol © £
Braille ⢷ (braille pattern dots-123568) ⢉ (braille pattern dots-148) ⢻ (braille pattern dots-124568) ⢿ (braille pattern dots-1234568) ⢼ (braille pattern dots-34568)

Math/Science symbols

Symbol |x| (abs. value) line ∫ closed ∫
Braille ⡶ (braille pattern dots-23567) ⢶ (braille pattern dots-23568) ⣿ (braille pattern dots-12345678) ⣤ (braille pattern dots-3678) ⢳ (braille pattern dots-12568) ⢓ (braille pattern dots-1258) ⣮ (braille pattern dots-234678) ⡮ (braille pattern dots-23467) ⢮ (braille pattern dots-23468)
Symbol
Braille ⣪ (braille pattern dots-24678) ⣕ (braille pattern dots-13578) ⣩ (braille pattern dots-14678) ⢩ (braille pattern dots-1468) ⢤ (braille pattern dots-368) ⡦ (braille pattern dots-2367) ⢴ (braille pattern dots-3568) ⢚ (braille pattern dots-2458) ⣱ (braille pattern dots-15678) ⣑ (braille pattern dots-1578) ⡾ (braille pattern dots-234567)

Markup

Symbol Superscript Subscript Left-superscript Left-subscript Begin fraction Denominator End fraction Over *
Braille ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35) ⠢ (braille pattern dots-26) ⣔ (braille pattern dots-3578) ⣢ (braille pattern dots-2678) ⠷ (braille pattern dots-12356) ⠌ (braille pattern dots-34) ⠾ (braille pattern dots-23456) ⠜ (braille pattern dots-345)

* Encodes the fraction-slash for the single adjacent digits/letters as numerator and denominator.

Symbol complex radicand * displayed equation ** math expressions ** hyperlink **
Open Close Open Close Open Close Open Close
Braille ⢪ (braille pattern dots-2468) ⣆ (braille pattern dots-2378) ⣰ (braille pattern dots-5678) ⣧ (braille pattern dots-123678) ⣼ (braille pattern dots-345678) ⣖ (braille pattern dots-23578) ⣲ (braille pattern dots-25678) ⣖ (braille pattern dots-23578) ⣲ (braille pattern dots-25678)

* Used for any > 1 digit radicand.

** Used for markup to represent inkprint text.

Symbol Array      
Begin End End element End line vert. stack horiz. combo superposition
Braille ⢄ (braille pattern dots-38) ⡠ (braille pattern dots-67) ⡂ (braille pattern dots-27) ⡆ (braille pattern dots-237) ⡬ (braille pattern dots-3467) ⣬ (braille pattern dots-34678) ⢬ (braille pattern dots-3468)
Symbol Misc. Symbol *     Modifiers
Begin End Quantity Markup indicator Inverted Stroke/Not Variant Large
Braille ⡄ (braille pattern dots-37) ⡀ (braille pattern dots-7) ⠿ (braille pattern dots-123456) ⡤ (braille pattern dots-367) ⣀ (braille pattern dots-78) ⡌ (braille pattern dots-347) ⢡ (braille pattern dots-168) ⡿ (braille pattern dots-1234567)

Typeface indicators

Symbol Script Bold Italic Underline Definable font 1 Fractur Roman Underline
Braille ⢈ (braille pattern dots-48) ⢘ (braille pattern dots-458) ⢨ (braille pattern dots-468) ⢸ (braille pattern dots-4568) ⣈ (braille pattern dots-478) ⣘ (braille pattern dots-4578) ⣨ (braille pattern dots-4678) ⣸ (braille pattern dots-45678)

Shape symbols

Symbol Open Square
Braille ⢀ (braille pattern dots-8) ⣆ (braille pattern dots-2378) ⢰ (braille pattern dots-568) ⡆ (braille pattern dots-237) ⢀ (braille pattern dots-8) ⣔ (braille pattern dots-3578) ⢰ (braille pattern dots-568) ⣲ (braille pattern dots-25678) ⢰ (braille pattern dots-568) ⣄ (braille pattern dots-378)

Set theory

Symbol
Braille ⢰ (braille pattern dots-568) ⣰ (braille pattern dots-5678) ⢰ (braille pattern dots-568) ⢲ (braille pattern dots-2568) ⢰ (braille pattern dots-568) ⣒ (braille pattern dots-2578) ⢐ (braille pattern dots-58) ⣲ (braille pattern dots-25678)

References

  1. ^ a b "Index of Topics in Braille Section". Oregon State University Science Access Project Braille topics. Retrieved 2012-04-29. 
  • Blind physicist creates better Braille — a CNN news item, November 9, 1995
  • The world of blind mathematicians — article in Notices of the AMS, November 2002


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.