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Governor-General of the Philippines

Governor-General of the Philippines
Miguel López de Legazpi
First Governor-General of the Philippines
Residence Palacio del Gobernador (1565–1863)
Malacañang Palace (1863–1945)
Mansion House (1942–1945)
Appointer Viceroy of New Spain
Monarch of Spain
British Sovereign
U.S President
Emperor of Japan
Precursor Various,
the barangay system
Formation 27 April 1565
First holder Miguel López de Legazpi
Final holder Tomoyuki Yamashita
Abolished 6 October 1945
Succession President of the Philippines

The Governor-General of the Philippines (Spanish: Gobernador-General de Filipinas; Filipino: Gobernador-Heneral ng Pilipinas) was the title of the government executive during the colonial period of the Philippines, governed mainly by Spain (1565–1898) and the United States (1898–1946), and briefly by Great Britain (1762–1764) and Japan (1942–1945). They were also the representative of the executive of the ruling power.

On November 15, 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established as a transitional government to prepare the country for independence from the American control. The governor-general was replaced by an elected Filipino "President of the Philippine Commonwealth", as the Chief executive of the Philippines, taking over many of the duties of the Governor-General. The former American Governor-General then became known as the High Commissioner to the Philippines.

Contents

  • Under New Spain (1565–1761) 1
  • British Occupation of Manila (1761–1764) 2
  • Under New Spain (1764–1821) 3
  • Direct Spanish control (1821–1898) 4
  • United States Military Government (1898–1901) 5
  • Insular Government (1901–1935) 6
  • High Commissioner to the Philippines (1935–42 and 1945–46) 7
  • Japanese military governors (1942–1945) 8
  • Timelines 9
  • See also 10
  • Notes 11
  • References 12

Under New Spain (1565–1761)

From 1565 to 1898, the Philippines was under Spanish rule. From 1565–1821, The governor and captain-general was appointed by the Viceroy of New Spain upon recommendation of the Spanish Cortes and governed on behalf of the Monarch of Spain. When there was a vacancy (e.g. death, or during the transitional period between governors), the Royal Audiencia in Manila appoints a temporary governor from among its members.

After 1821, the country was no longer under the Viceroyalty of New Spain (present-day Mexico) and administrative affairs formerly handled by New Spain were transferred to Madrid and placed directly under the Spanish Crown.

  Ad interim

# Picture Name From Until Monarch
1 Miguel López de Legazpi April 27, 1565 August 20, 1572
Philip II
(25 July 1554 – 13 September 1598)
2 Guido de Lavezaris August 20, 1572 August 25, 1575
3 Francisco de Sande August 25, 1575 April 1580
4 Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa April 1580 March 10, 1583
5 Diego Ronquillo March 10, 1583 May 16, 1584
6 Santiago de Vera May 16, 1584 May 1590
7 Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas June 1, 1590 October 25, 1593
8 Pedro de Rojas October 1593 December 3, 1593
9 Luís Pérez Dasmariñas December 3, 1593 July 14, 1596
10 Francisco de Tello de Guzmán July 14, 1596 May 1602

Philip III
(13 September 1598 – 31 March 1621)
11 Pedro Bravo de Acuña May 1602 June 24, 1606
12 Cristóbal Téllez de Almanza
(Real Audiencia)
June 24, 1606 June 15, 1608
13 Rodrigo de Vivero y Aberrucia June 15, 1608 April 1609
14 Juan de Silva April 1609 April 19, 1616
15 Andrés Alcaraz
(Real Audiencia)
April 19, 1616 July 3, 1618
16 Alonso Fajardo de Entenza July 3, 1618 July 1624

Philip IV
(31 March 1621 – 17 September 1665)
17 Jeronimo de Silva
(Real Audiencia)
July 1624 June 1625
18 Fernándo de Silva July 1624 June 29, 1626
19 Juan Niño de Tabora June 29, 1626 July 22, 1632
20 Lorenzo de Olaza
(Real Audiencia)
July 22, 1632 1633
21 Juan Cerezo de Salamanca August 29, 1633 June 25, 1635
22 Sebastián Hurtado de Corcuera June 25, 1635 August 11, 1644
23 Diego Fajardo Chacón August 11, 1644 July 25, 1653
24 Sabiniano Manrique de Lara July 25, 1653 September 8, 1663
25 Diego de Salcedo September 8, 1663 September 28, 1668

Charles II
(17 September 1665 – 1 November 1700)
26 Juan Manuel de la Peña Bonifaz September 28, 1668 September 24, 1669
27 Manuel de León September 24, 1669 September 21, 1677
28 Francisco Coloma
(Real Audiencia)
September 21, 1677 September 21, 1677
29 Francisco Sotomayor y Mansilla
(Real Audiencia)
September 21, 1677 September 28, 1678
30 Juan de Vargas y Hurtado September 28, 1678 August 24, 1684
31 Gabriel de Curuzealegui y Arriola August 24, 1684 April 1689
32 Alonso de Avila Fuertes
(Real Audiencia)
April 1689 July 1690
33 Fausto Cruzat y Gongora July 25, 1690 December 8, 1701

Philip V1

November 1700 – 15 January 1724

34 Domingo Zabálburu de Echevarri December 8, 1701 August 25, 1709
35 Martín de Urzúa y Arizmendi, count of Lizárraga August 25, 1709 February 4, 1715
36 José Torralba
(Real Audiencia)
February 4, 1715 August 9, 1717
37 Fernando Manuel de Bustillo Bustamante y Rueda August 9, 1717 October 11, 1719
38 Archbishop Francisco de la Cuesta
(acting)
October 11, 1719 August 6, 1721
39 Toribio José Cosio y Campo August 6, 1721 August 14, 1729

Louis I

(15 January – 31 August 1724)


Philip V

(6 September 1724 – 9 July 1746)

40 Fernándo Valdés y Tamon August 14, 1729 July 1739
41 Gaspar de la Torre July 1739 September 21, 1745
42 Archbishop Juan Arrechederra
(acting)
September 21, 1745 July 20, 1750

(9 July 1746 – 10 August 1759)

43 Francisco José de Ovando, 1st Marquis of Brindisi July 20, 1750 July 26, 1754
44 Pedro Manuel de Arandía Santisteban July 26, 1754 May 31, 1759
45 Bishop Miguel Lino de Ezpeleta
(acting)
June 1759 May 31, 1761

Charles III

(10 August 1759 – 14 December 1788)

46 Archbishop Manuel Rojo del Río y Vieyra
(acting)
July 1761 October 6, 1762
Charles III

British Occupation of Manila (1761–1764)

Great Britain occupied Manila and the naval port of Cavite as part of the Seven Years' War.

# Picture Name From Until Monarch
47 Simón de Anda y Salazar
(Provisional Government in Bacolor, Pampanga)
October 6, 1762 February 10, 1764
Charles III
48 Dawsonne Drake November 2, 1762 May 31, 1764
George III

Under New Spain (1764–1821)

# Picture Name From Until Monarch
49 Francisco Javier de la Torre March 17, 1764 July 6, 1765
Charles III
50 José Antonio Raón y Gutiérrez July 6, 1765 July 1770
51 Simón de Anda y Salazar July 1770 October 30, 1776
52 Pedro de Sarrio October 30, 1776 July 1778
53 José Basco y Vargas July 1778 September 22, 1787
54 Pedro de Sarrio September 22, 1787 July 1, 1788
55 Félix Berenguer de Marquina July 1, 1788 September 1, 1793

Charles IV
56 Rafael María de Aguilar y Ponce de León September 1, 1793 August 7, 1806
57  

 
Mariano Fernández de Folgueras August 7, 1806 March 4, 1810

Ferdinand VII

Joseph Bonaparte
58 Manuel Gonzalez de Aguilar March 4, 1810 September 4, 1813
59 José Gardoqui Jaraveitia September 4, 1813 December 10, 1816

Ferdinand VII
60 Mariano Fernández de Folgueras December 10, 1816 September 15, 1821

Direct Spanish control (1821–1898)

After the 1821 Mexican War of Independence, Mexico became independent and was no longer part of the Spanish Empire. The Viceroyalty of New Spain ceased to exist. The Philippines, as a result, was directly governed from Madrid, under the Crown.

# Picture Name From Until Monarch
60 Mariano Fernández de Folgueras September 16, 1821 October 30, 1822
Ferdinand VII
61 Juan Antonio Martínez October 30, 1822 October 14, 1825
62 Mariano Ricafort Palacín y Abarca October 14, 1825 December 23, 1830
63 Pasqual Enrile y Alcedo December 23, 1830 March 1, 1835

Isabella II
64 Gabriel de Torres March 1, 1835 April 23, 1835
65 Joaquín de Crámer April 23, 1835 September 9, 1835
66 Pedro Antonio Salazar Castillo y Varona September 9, 1835 August 27, 1837
67 Andrés García Camba August 27, 1837 December 29, 1838
68 Luis Lardizábal December 29, 1838 February 14, 1841
69 Marcelino de Oraá Lecumberri February 14, 1841 June 17, 1843
70 Francisco de Paula Alcalá de la Torre June 17, 1843 July 16, 1844
71 Narciso Clavería, 1st Count of Manila July 16, 1844 December 26, 1849
72 Antonio María Blanco December 26, 1849 July 29, 1850
73 Antonio de Urbistondo y Eguía July 29, 1850 December 20, 1853
74 Ramón Montero y Blandino December 20, 1853 February 2, 1854
75 Manuel Pavía, 1st Marquis of Novaliches February 2, 1854 October 28, 1854
76 Ramón Montero y Blandino October 28, 1854 November 20, 1854
77 Manuel Crespo y Cebrían November 20, 1854 December 5, 1856
78 Ramón Montero y Blandino December 5, 1856 March 9, 1857
79 Fernándo Norzagaray y Escudero March 9, 1857 January 12, 1860
80 Ramón María Solano y Llanderal January 12, 1860 August 29, 1860
81 Juan Herrera Dávila August 29, 1860 February 2, 1861
82 José Lemery e Ibarrola Ney y González February 2, 1861 July 7, 1862
83 Salvador Valdés July 7, 1862 July 9, 1862
84 Rafaél de Echagüe y Bermingham July 9, 1862 March 24, 1865
85 Joaquín del Solar e Ibáñez March 24, 1865 April 25, 1865
86 Juan de Lara e Irigoyen April 25, 1865 July 13, 1866
88 José Laureano de Sanz y Posse July 13, 1866 September 21, 1866
89 Juan Antonio Osorio September 21, 1866 September 27, 1866
90 Joaquín del Solar e Ibáñez September 27, 1866 October 26, 1866
91 José de la Gándara y Navarro October 26, 1866 June 7, 1869
No Monarch
92 Manuel Maldonado June 7, 1869 June 23, 1869
93 Cárlos María de la Torre y Nava Cerrada June 23, 1869 April 4, 1871
Amadeo I
94 Rafael de Izquierdo y Gutíerrez April 4, 1871 January 8, 1873
95 Manuel MacCrohon January 8, 1873 January 24, 1873
96 Juan Alaminos y Vivar January 24, 1873 March 17, 1874
No Monarch
97 Manuel Blanco Valderrama
(acting)
March 17, 1874 June 18, 1874
98 José Malcampo y Monje June 18, 1874 February 28, 1877

Alfonso XII
(December 29, 1874 – November 25, 1885)
99 Domingo Moriones y Murillo February 28, 1877 March 20, 1880
100 Rafael Rodríguez Arias March 20, 1880 April 15, 1880
101 Fernando Primo de Rivera, 1st Marquis of Estella April 15, 1880 March 10, 1883
102 Emilio Molíns 1st term,
(acting)
March 10, 1883 April 7, 1883
103 Joaquín Jovellar April 7, 1883 April 1, 1885
104 Emilio Molíns 2nd term,
(acting)
April 1, 1885 April 4, 1885
105 Emilio Terrero y Perinat April 4, 1885 April 25, 1888

Alfonso XIII (May 17, 1886)
106 Antonio Moltó
(acting)
April 25, 1888 June 4, 1888
107 Federico Lobatón
(acting)
June 4, 1888 June 5, 1888
108 Valeriano Wéyler June 5, 1888 November 17, 1891
109 Eulogio Despujol November 17, 1891 March 1, 1893
110 Federico Ochando
(acting)
March 1, 1893 May 4, 1893
111 Ramón Blanco, 1st Marquis of Peña Plata May 4, 1893 December 13, 1896
112 Camilo de Polavieja, 1st Marquis of Polavieja
(acting)
December 13, 1896 April 15, 1897
113 José de Lachambre
(acting)
April 15, 1897 April 23, 1897
114 Fernando Primo de Rivera, 1st Marquis of Estella April 23, 1897 April 11, 1898
115 Basilio Augustín[1] April 11, 1898 July 24, 1898
116 Fermín Jáudenes[1]
(acting)
July 24, 1898 August 13, 1898
117 Francisco Rizzo[1]
(acting)
August 13, 1898 September 1898
118 Diego de los Ríos[1]
(acting)
September 1898 June 3, 1899

United States Military Government (1898–1901)

The American military government was established following the defeat of Spain in the Spanish–American War. During the transition period, executive authority in all civil affairs in the Philippine government was exercised by the military governor.

# Picture Name From Until President
1 Wesley Merritt August 14, 1898[2] August 30, 1898[3]
William McKinley
2 Elwell S. Otis August 28, 1898 May 5, 1900
3 Arthur MacArthur, Jr. May 5, 1900 July 4, 1901
4 Adna Chaffee [4] July 4, 1901 July 4, 1902

Insular Government (1901–1935)

On July 4, 1901, executive authority over the islands was transferred to the president of the Second Philippine Commission who had the title of Civil Governor, a position appointed by the President of the United States and approved by the United States Senate. For the first year, a Military Governor, Adna Chaffee, ruled parts of the country still resisting the American rule, concurrent with civil governor, William Howard Taft.[5] Disagreements between the two were not uncommon.[6] The following year, on July 4, 1902, Taft became the sole executive authority.[4] Chaffee remained as commander of Philippine Division until September 30, 1902.[7]

The title was changed to Governor General in 1905 by an act of Congress (Public 43 - February 6, 1905).[4] The term "insular" (from insulam, the Latin word for island)[8] refers to U.S. island territories that are not incorporated into either a state or a federal district. All insular areas was under the authority of the U.S. Bureau of Insular Affairs, a division of the US War Department.[9][10]

# Picture Name From Until President
1 William Howard Taft July 4, 1901 February 1, 1904
William McKinley
To September 1901

Theodore Roosevelt
From September 1901
2 Luke Edward Wright February 1, 1904 November 3, 1905

Theodore Roosevelt
3 Henry Clay Ide November 3, 1905 September 19, 1906
4 James Francis Smith September 20, 1906 November 11, 1909
5 William Cameron Forbes William Cameron Forbes November 11, 1909 September 1, 1913
William Howard Taft
- Newton W. Gilbert
(Acting Governor-General)
September 1, 1913 October 6, 1913
Woodrow Wilson
6 Francis Burton Harrison October 6, 1913 March 5, 1921
- Charles Yeater
(Acting Governor-General)
March 5, 1921 October 14, 1921
Warren G. Harding
To September 1923

Calvin Coolidge
7 Leonard Wood October 14, 1921 August 7, 1927
- Eugene Allen Gilmore
(Acting Governor-General)
August 7, 1927 December 27, 1927

Calvin Coolidge
8 Henry L. Stimson December 27, 1927 February 23, 1929
- Eugene Allen Gilmore
(Acting Governor-General)
February 23, 1929 July 8, 1929
Herbert Hoover
9 Dwight F. Davis July 8, 1929 January 9, 1932
- George C. Butte
(Acting Governor-General)
January 9, 1932 February 29, 1932
10 Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. February 29, 1932 July 15, 1933
11 Frank Murphy July 15, 1933 November 14, 1935
Became High Commissioner to the Philippines

Franklin D. Roosevelt

High Commissioner to the Philippines (1935–42 and 1945–46)

On November 15, 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was inaugurated as a transitional government to prepare the country for independence. The office of President of the Philippine Commonwealth replaced the Governor-General as the country's chief executive. The Governor-General became the High Commissioner of the Philippines with Frank Murphy, the last governor-general, as the first high commissioner. The High Commissioner exercised no executive power but rather represented the colonial power, the United States Government, in the Philippines. The high commissioner moved from Malacañang Palace to the newly built High Commissioner's Residence, now the Embassy of the United States in Manila.

After the Philippine independence on July 4, 1946, the last High Commissioner, Paul McNutt, became the first United States Ambassador to the Philippines.

# Picture Name From Until President
1 Frank Murphy November 14, 1935 1937
Franklin D. Roosevelt
2 Paul V. McNutt 1937 1939
3 Francis Bowes Sayre, Sr. 1939 1942
4 Paul V. McNutt 1945 1946
Following Philippine independence became
1st U.S. Ambassador to the Philippines

Harry S Truman

Japanese military governors (1942–1945)

In December 1941, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was invaded by Japan as part of World War II. The next year, the Empire of Japan sent a military governor to control the country during wartime, followed by the formal establishment of the puppet second republic.[11]

# Picture Name From Until Emperor
1 Masaharu Homma January 3, 1942 June 8, 1942
Emperor Hirohito
2 Shizuichi Tanaka June 8, 1942 May 28, 1943
3 Shigenori Kuroda May 28, 1943 September 26, 1944
4 Tomoyuki Yamashita September 26, 1944 September 2, 1945

Timelines

1750–1800

1800–1850

1850–1900

1900–1945

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Peterson 2007, p. 11.
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b c Elliott (1917), p. 509
  5. ^ Elliott (1917), p. 4
  6. ^ Tanner (1901), p. 383
  7. ^
  8. ^ "Island - from English to Latin". Google Translate. Retrieved on 2013=08-07.
  9. ^ "Definitions of Insular Area Political Organizations". U.S. Department of the Interior.
  10. ^ "Insular". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved on 2013-08-07.
  11. ^ Cahoon (2000)

References

  • Governors of the Philippines
  • Cahoon, Ben (2000). "Philippines". World's Statesmen.
  • Don Peterson (2007-2nd Qtr), 1898: Five Philippine Governors-General Serve Rapid Fire Terms, Philippine Philatelic Journal.
  • Tanner, Dr. J.M. (1901-11). Improvement Era Vol.5 No. 1. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.
  • Elliott, Charles Burke (1917). The Philippines: To the End of the Commission Government, a Study in Tropical Democracy. The Bobbs-Merrill Company.
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