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Governor of Florida

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Governor of Florida

Governor of Florida
Official seal
Residence
Florida Governor's Mansion
Term length Four years, can succeed self once
Inaugural holder William Dunn Moseley
Formation 1845
Deputy Vacant
Salary $132,932 (2009)[1]
Website www.flgov.com

The Governor of Florida is the head of the executive branch of government in the U.S. state of Florida, and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.[2] The governor has a duty to enforce state laws, and the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Florida Legislature,[3] to convene the legislature,[4] and to grant pardons, except in cases of impeachment.[5]

When Florida was first acquired by the United States, future president Andrew Jackson served as its military governor. Florida Territory was established in 1822, and five people served as governor over six distinct terms. The first territorial governor, William Pope Duval, served 12 years, the longest of any governor to date. Since statehood in 1845 there have been 43 people who have served as governor, one of whom served two distinct terms. Three state governors have served two full four-year terms: William D. Bloxham, in two stints; and Reubin Askew and Jeb Bush, who each served their terms consecutively. Bob Graham almost served two terms, as he resigned with only three days left. The shortest term in office belongs to Wayne Mixson, who served three days following the resignation of his predecessor.

The current governor is Rick Scott, who took office on January 4, 2011 following the 2010 election.

Governors

Military governor

For the a list of governors before Florida became a United States territory, see the list of colonial governors of Florida.

Spanish Florida was acquired from Spain in the Adams–Onís Treaty, which took effect July 10, 1821.[6] Parts of West Florida had already been assigned to Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi; the remainder and East Florida were governed by the commander of the military force that had helped secure American influence in the region.

Picture Governor Took office Left office Appointed by Notes
Andrew Jackson March 10, 1821 December 31, 1821 James Monroe [lower-alpha 1][lower-alpha 2]

Governors of the Territory of Florida

Florida Territory was organized on March 30, 1822, combining East and West Florida.[11]

Picture Governor Took office Left office Appointed by
William Pope Duval April 17, 1822 April 24, 1834 James Monroe
John Quincy Adams
Andrew Jackson
John Eaton April 24, 1834 March 16, 1836 Andrew Jackson
Richard K. Call March 16, 1836 December 2, 1839 Andrew Jackson
Robert R. Reid December 2, 1839 March 19, 1841 Martin Van Buren
Richard K. Call March 19, 1841 August 11, 1844 William Henry Harrison
John Tyler
John Branch August 11, 1844 June 25, 1845 John Tyler

Governors of the State of Florida





The State of Florida was admitted to the Union on March 3, 1845. It seceded from the Union on January 10, 1861,[12] and joined the Confederate States of America on February 8, 1861,[13] as a founding member; there was no Union government in exile, so there was a single line of governors. Following the end of the American Civil War, it was part of the Third Military District.[14] Florida was readmitted to the Union on June 25, 1868.[15]

The first Florida Constitution, ratified in 1838, provided that a governor be elected every four years, who was not allowed to serve consecutive terms.[16] The secessionist constitution of 1861 would have reduced this to two years and removed the term limit,[17] but the state fell to the Union before the first election under that constitution. The rejected constitution of 1865 and the ratified constitution of 1868 maintained the four-year term,[18][19] though without the earlier term limit, which was reintroduced in the 1885 constitution.[20] The current constitution of 1968 states that should the governor serve, or would have served had they not resigned, more than six years in two consecutive terms, he cannot be elected to the succeeding term.[21] The start of a term was set in 1885 at the first Tuesday after the first Monday in the January following the election,[20] where it has remained.[22]

Originally, the president of the state senate acted as governor should that office be vacant.[23] The 1865 and 1868 constitutions created the office of lieutenant governor,[24][25] who would similarly act as governor. This office was abolished in 1885, with the president of the senate again taking on that duty.[26] The 1968 constitution recreated the office of lieutenant governor, who now becomes governor in the absence of the governor.[27] The governor and lieutenant governor are elected on the same ticket.[21]

Florida was a strongly Democratic state before the Civil War, electing only candidates from the Democratic and Whig parties. It elected three Republican governors following Reconstruction, but after the Democratic Party re-established control, 89 years passed before voters chose another Republican.

      Democratic (34)       Independent (1)[lower-alpha 3]       Prohibition (1)       Provisional (1)       Republican (8)[lower-alpha 3]       Whig (1)

#[lower-alpha 4] Governor Term start Term end Party Lt. Governor[lower-alpha 5][lower-alpha 6] Terms[lower-alpha 7]
1   William Dunn Moseley June 25, 1845 October 1, 1849 Democratic None 1
2 Thomas Brown October 1, 1849 October 3, 1853 Whig 1
3 James E. Broome October 3, 1853 October 5, 1857 Democratic 1
4 Madison S. Perry October 5, 1857 October 7, 1861 Democratic 1
5 John Milton October 7, 1861 April 1, 1865 Democratic 12[lower-alpha 8]
6 Abraham K. Allison April 1, 1865 May 19, 1865 Democratic 12[lower-alpha 9][lower-alpha 10]
7 William Marvin July 13, 1865 December 20, 1865 Provisional [lower-alpha 11][lower-alpha 12]
8 David S. Walker December 20, 1865 July 4, 1868 Democratic   William W. J. Kelly[lower-alpha 13] [lower-alpha 11][lower-alpha 14]
9 Harrison Reed July 4, 1868 January 7, 1873 Republican William Henry Gleason[lower-alpha 15] 1[lower-alpha 16]
Edmund C. Weeks[lower-alpha 17]
Samuel T. Day
10 Ossian B. Hart January 7, 1873 March 18, 1874 Republican Marcellus Stearns 12[lower-alpha 18]
11 Marcellus Stearns March 18, 1874 January 2, 1877 Republican Vacant 12[lower-alpha 19]
12 George Franklin Drew January 2, 1877 January 4, 1881 Democratic Noble A. Hull[lower-alpha 20] 1
13 William D. Bloxham January 4, 1881 January 7, 1885 Democratic Livingston W. Bethel 1
14 Edward A. Perry January 7, 1885 January 8, 1889 Democratic Milton H. Mabry 1
15 Francis P. Fleming January 8, 1889 January 3, 1893 Democratic None 1
16 Henry L. Mitchell January 3, 1893 January 5, 1897 Democratic 1
17 William D. Bloxham January 5, 1897 January 8, 1901 Democratic 1
18 William Sherman Jennings January 8, 1901 January 3, 1905 Democratic 1
19 Napoleon B. Broward January 3, 1905 January 5, 1909 Democratic 1
20 Albert W. Gilchrist January 5, 1909 January 7, 1913 Democratic 1
21 Park Trammell January 7, 1913 January 2, 1917 Democratic 1
22 Sidney Johnston Catts January 2, 1917 January 4, 1921 Prohibition 1
23 Cary A. Hardee January 4, 1921 January 6, 1925 Democratic 1
24 John W. Martin January 6, 1925 January 8, 1929 Democratic 1
25 Doyle E. Carlton January 8, 1929 January 3, 1933 Democratic 1
26 David Sholtz January 3, 1933 January 5, 1937 Democratic 1
27 Fred P. Cone January 5, 1937 January 7, 1941 Democratic 1
28 Spessard Holland January 7, 1941 January 2, 1945 Democratic 1
29 Millard F. Caldwell January 2, 1945 January 4, 1949 Democratic 1
30 Fuller Warren January 4, 1949 January 6, 1953 Democratic 1
31 Daniel T. McCarty January 6, 1953 September 28, 1953 Democratic 13[lower-alpha 18]
32 Charley Eugene Johns September 28, 1953 January 4, 1955 Democratic 13[lower-alpha 21]
33 LeRoy Collins January 4, 1955 January 3, 1961 Democratic 13+1[lower-alpha 22]
34 C. Farris Bryant January 3, 1961 January 5, 1965 Democratic 1
35 W. Haydon Burns January 5, 1965 January 3, 1967 Democratic 1[lower-alpha 23]
36 Claude R. Kirk, Jr. January 3, 1967 January 5, 1971 Republican None 1
Ray C. Osborne
37 Reubin Askew January 5, 1971 January 2, 1979 Democratic Thomas Burton Adams, Jr. 2
Jim Williams
38 Bob Graham January 2, 1979 January 3, 1987 Democratic Wayne Mixson 112[lower-alpha 24]
39 Wayne Mixson January 3, 1987 January 6, 1987 Democratic Vacant 12[lower-alpha 25]
40 Bob Martinez January 6, 1987 January 8, 1991 Republican Bobby Brantley 1
41 Lawton Chiles January 8, 1991 December 12, 1998 Democratic Buddy MacKay 112[lower-alpha 18]
42 Buddy MacKay December 12, 1998 January 5, 1999 Democratic Vacant 12[lower-alpha 25]
43 Jeb Bush January 5, 1999 January 2, 2007 Republican Frank Brogan[lower-alpha 26] 2
Toni Jennings
44 Charlie Crist January 2, 2007 January 4, 2011 Republican Jeff Kottkamp[lower-alpha 13] 1[lower-alpha 27]
Independent
45 Rick Scott January 4, 2011 Incumbent Republican Jennifer Carroll[lower-alpha 28] 1[lower-alpha 29]
vacant

Other high offices held

Fourteen of Florida's governors have served higher federal offices, including one President of the United States, two Cabinet secretaries, and one ambassador. One served as Governor of North Carolina, and all fourteen were elected to the U.S. Congress, though only nine represented Florida, and only seven actually took their seats. One died before taking office, and the other was refused his seat by the U.S. Senate shortly after the American Civil War, because Florida had not yet been reconstructed. One governor (marked with *) resigned to take his seat in the Senate.

Governor Gubernatorial term Other offices held Source
Andrew Jackson 1821 Representative and Senator from Tennessee, President of the United States [40]
William Pope Duval 1822–1834 Representative from Kentucky [41]
John Eaton 1834–1836 Senator from Tennessee, Minister to Spain, Secretary of War [42]
Richard K. Call 1836–1839, 1841–1844 Territorial Delegate from Florida Territory [43]
Robert R. Reid 1839–1841 Representative from Florida, Representative from Georgia [44]
John Branch 1844–1845 Representative and Senator from North Carolina, Governor of North Carolina, Secretary of the Navy [45]
William Marvin 1865 Elected to the Senate from Florida but was refused seat [46]
Napoleon B. Broward 1905–1909 Elected to the Senate from Florida but died before taking office [47]
Park Trammell 1913–1917 Senator from Florida [48]
Spessard Holland 1941–1945 Senator from Florida [49]
Millard F. Caldwell 1945–1949 Representative from Florida [50]
Bob Graham 1979–1987 Senator from Florida* [51]
Lawton Chiles 1991–1998 Senator from Florida [52]
Buddy MacKay 1998–1999 Representative from Florida [53]

Living former governors

As of September 2011, seven former governors are alive. The most recent death of a former governor was that of Claude R. Kirk, Jr. (1967–1971), on September 28, 2011.

Governor Gubernatorial term Date of birth
Reubin Askew 1971–1979 (1928-09-11) September 11, 1928 (age 85)
Bob Graham 1979–1987 (1936-11-09) November 9, 1936 (age 77)
Wayne Mixson 1987 (1922-06-16) June 16, 1922 (age 92)
Bob Martinez 1987–1991 (1934-12-25) December 25, 1934 (age 79)
Buddy MacKay 1998–1999 (1933-03-22) March 22, 1933 (age 81)
Jeb Bush 1999–2007 (1953-02-11) February 11, 1953 (age 61)
Charlie Crist 2007–2011 (1956-07-24) July 24, 1956 (age 58)

Notes

References

General
Constitutions
Specific


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