World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Heimwehr

Heimwehr march in Wiener Neustadt, 1931

The Heimwehr (Freikorps. Although opposed to parliamentary democracy, the Heimwehr maintained a political wing known as the Heimatblock, which cooperated with Engelbert Dollfuss' conservative government. In 1936, the Heimwehr was usurped into the Fatherland Front on decree of Chancellor Kurt von Schuschnigg and replaced by a militia supposedly less inclined towards uproar against the regime, the Frontmiliz.

Contents

  • Origins and reorganization 1
  • 1930s 2
  • Decline 3
  • References 4

Origins and reorganization

Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuß wearing the Heimwehr uniform (1933)

Formed mainly from demobilised soldiers after Socialist Schutzbund"[3] in an attempt to curb socialist power. The increasing politicalization of militias led to the Heimwehr involvement in helping the police suppress the July Revolt of 1927.

The most distinctive part of the Heimwehren uniforms was a green loden hat with the tail feather of a black grouse (which had earlier been the Symbol of the Tyrolean Kaiserschützen). Therefore Heimwehr fighters were ridiculed by their opponents as "rooster tails" (Hahnenschwanzler).[4]

1930s

Heimwehr leader Richard Steidle (centre), Baron Hans von Pranckh (right) and Baron von Bachofen-Echt (left), September 1930

The Heimwehr continued to lack any real national coherence up to 1930, when Heimwehr leaders committed themselves to the Korneuburg Oath, which established an Austrian conservative nationalism base (as distinct from the pan-German nationalism of the Nazi Party), a rejection of liberal democracy and Marxism, in favour of a more autocratic government, and a rejection of "class struggle" (see Austrofascism).[5] This initiative was spearheaded by Richard Steidle, who was supported by German emigre Waldemar Pabst in his attempts to convince the Heimwehr to support the corporatist-state economic policy which Benito Mussolini was putting into practice in Italy.[6]

When Walter Pfrimer, regional head in Styria attempted a coup in 1931, he received no support from other Heimwehr leaders. After this, many Heimwehr groupings, including the Styrian section, increasingly defected to the Nazi Party.[7]

Tensions continued between Austrian section of the Nazi Party, who believed in a pan-Germanic state, which would bring Austria into a Greater German Empire and the Heimwehr, who believed that Austria should remain an independent nation. This led to low level violence, including one incident where Nazi Party members attacked a Heimwehr march with eggs.[8]

Decline

After Engelbert Dollfuss created the Fatherland Front in 1934, he gained control over and incorporated the Heimwehr into other right-wing militaries with the help of Heimwehr leader Ernst Rüdiger Starhemberg. Politically, the Heimwehr suffered a decline in support and significance due to the pan-German, nationalist allure of the Nazis and Italy's gradual reorientation of its foreign policy towards Germany. As a result of these factors, Dollfuss' successor, Kurt Schuschnigg, absorbed the remaining Heimwehr elements into the Fatherland Front in 1936, and it ceased to exist as a political grouping. Ernst Starhemberg was left out of the new governmental order in an attempt to end rivalries between private armies.[9]

References

  1. ^ Jelavich, Barbara (December 1989). Modern Austria : Empire & Republic 1815-1986.  
  2. ^ Brook-Shepherd, Gordon (December 1996). The Austrians : a thousand-year odyssey.  
  3. ^ Brook-Shepherd, Gordon (December 1996). The Austrians : a thousand-year odyssey.  
  4. ^ Diem, Peter (1995). Die Symbole Österreichs: Zeit und Geschichte in Zeichen. Kremayr & Scheriau. p. 141. 
  5. ^ Brook-Shepherd, Gordon (December 1996). The Austrians : a thousand-year odyssey.  
  6. ^ R.J.B. Bosworth, The Oxford Handbook of Fascism, Oxford University Press, 2009, p. 439
  7. ^ Aicher, Martina (2012). "Heimwehren (Österreich)". Organisationen, Institutionen, Bewegungen. Handbuch des Antisemitismus 5. de Gruyter. p. 310. 
  8. ^ Milwaukee Sentinel, May 15, 1933 https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=OE5QAAAAIBAJ&sjid=OA0EAAAAIBAJ&dq=waukesha%20county&pg=3070%2C2306546
  9. ^ "Mother's Helper".  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.